BACKGROUND Aspergillosis is one of the most important opportunistic infections after organ transplantation. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy are key factors for better prognosis. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of patients with solid organ transplantation with evidence of Aspergillus infections from December 2001 to January 2008, evaluating patient demographics, time of onset after transplantation, risk factors, radiologic appearance, diagnostic criteria, antifungal therapy, and outcome. RESULTS We observed aspergillosis in 8 lung, 3 kidney, and 1 heart recipient, with overall mean age of 40.6 years. Seven cases of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis were diagnosed in lung transplant recipients, all of them in the first 6 months after transplantation. All patients responded to antifungal therapy and bronchoscopic debridement. We observed 5 cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Three patients survived in response to antifungal treatment. The two patients who died were treated with a combination of itraconazole and amphotericin B, whereas all cured patients had been treated with voriconazole alone or in combination with caspofungin. CONCLUSION It seems that the prognosis of aspergillosis in solid organ recipients is improving with new treatment regimens, particularly if they are used in early stages of infection.