Pulmonary inflammation is one of the risk factors associated with blood and marrow transplantation (BMT). To determine the potential role of T cells in pulmonary complications after transplantation, we analyzed the T-cell repertoire expressed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from eleven patients with graft-versus-host disease following BMT. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify rearranged TCR transcripts in unfractionated, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. The relative expression of TCR variable (V) gene families and the diversity of junctional region lengths associated with different AV and BV gene families were analyzed. Nearly all TCR AV and BV gene families were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage cells from BMT recipients. Oligoclonal patterns of TCR junctional region lengths were observed in unfractionated, CD4+, and CD8+ bronchoalveolar T cells. The oligoclonal expansion of bronchoalveolar T cells in patients was confirmed by DNA sequencing. TCRV gene expression is almost completely restored in the lungs of BMT recipients as early as two weeks after transplantation. Increased oligoclonality among TCR gene families suggests either an incomplete restoration of TCR diversity or an antigen-driven expansion of T cells in the lungs of BMT recipients with graft-versus-host disease, not necessarily related to pulmonary infection.