Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning lower limb anatomy
INTRODUCTION Pelvic ring injuries rank among the most serious skeletal injuries. According to published data, pelvic fractures constitute 3-8% of all fractures. There has been a threefold increase in the number of these fractures over the last 10 years. A significant factor determining the choice of the therapeutic procedure, timing and sequence of individual steps, and also the prognosis of the patient with a fractured pelvis, are associated injuries defined as injuries to the organs and anatomical structures found in the pelvic region. Published data describes the incidence of injury to neurogenic structures as ranging between 9 and 21%, to the urogenital tract between 5 and 11%, to the gastrointestinal tract in 3-17% and to the gynecologic organs up to 1%. The pathway of the pudendal nerve may be affected in types B and C fractures where the root fibers emerge from the foramina sacralia and plexus sacralis is formed, on the one hand, and in types A, B and C fractures during the nerve's course alongside the inferior pubic ramus. MATERIALS AND METHODS In order to determine the frequency of potential injury to the pudendal nerve, a set of 225 pelvic fractures treated between 2007 and 2009 was assessed; 38 fixed hemipelves were also used to study the length of the course of the pudendal nerve alongside the inferior pubic ramus, on the one hand, and the distances from the symphysis pubica at the crossing of the branches of the n. pudendus-n. dorsalis penis and the branches for the muscles of the diaphragma urogenitale on the other hand. CONCLUSION The work elucidated the selected distances and discuss their possible clinical relevance for evaluation of the seriousness of pelvic fractures from the perspective of late sequelae in the region innervated by the pudendal nerve.