Quantification of intrinsic and reflexive properties during multijoint arm posture.
Mathematical Human Body Models (HBM) are important research tools that are used to study the human response in car crash situations. Development of automotive safety systems requires the implementation of active muscle response in HBM, as novel safety systems also interact with vehicle occupants in the precrash phase. In this study, active muscle response was implemented using feedback control of a non-linear muscle model in the right upper extremity of a Finite Element (FE) HBM. Hill-type line muscle elements were added and the active and passive properties were assessed. Volunteer tests with low impact loading resulting in elbow flexion motions were performed. Simulations of posture maintenance in a gravity field and the volunteer tests were successfully conducted. It was concluded that feedback control of a non-linear musculoskeletal model can be used to obtain posture maintenance and human-like reflexive responses in an FE HBM.