Public health and environmental benefits of adopting lead-free solders

  title={Public health and environmental benefits of adopting lead-free solders},
  author={Oladele A. Ogunseitan},
After more than 7,000 years of wide-spread use, lead is figuratively sinking in contemporary industrial ecology and global societal commerce. But, despite the long research history of documenting the detrimental impacts of lead use, and of legislative initiatives to phase lead out of various products and processes, the United States currently has no federal mandate comparable to the European Union’s “restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment… 
Evolution of electronic waste toxicity: Trends in innovation and regulation.
The results demonstrate that command-and-control regulations have had minimal impacts on WPCBs composition and toxicity risks; whereas technological innovation may have been influenced more by resource conservation, including a declining trend in the use of precious metals such as gold.
Overview and Functional Characterization of Pb–Free Solders
There are now new legislations emerging or being contemplated to restrict the use of Pb in electronic devices. This development has provided the impetus for the development of Pb- free solder alloys
The Basel Convention and e-waste: translation of scientific uncertainty to protective policy.
Major gaps and uncertainties in the understanding of the risks associated with exposure, vulnerability, and causal linkage of e-waste to disease burden are shown, and broader geographical and methodological scopes of research on the health of electronic waste are needed to fill the major gaps.
Assessment Of Electronic Waste Management And The Environmental Impact On Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria
The development of electrical and electronic industry has led to increase not only in the production of new goods, but also in scraps generation. The rapid movements in electronic industry, e-waste
Determination of metals in printed wiring boards of waste mobile phones
Metal contents of waste mobile phones represent a major environmental risk, especially considering the adoption of inappropriate management options in developing countries including open burning and
Reliability issues of lead-free solder joints in electronic devices
This paper reviews the research progress on the reliability of lead-free solder joints and discusses the influence of temperature, vibration, tin whisker and electromigration onThe reliability of solder joints.
Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones.
The results reveal hazards of burning discarded cellphones to recover precious metals, and pinpoints opportunities for manufacturers to reduce toxic materials used in specific electronic components marketed globally.
Development of gold based solder candidates for flip chip assembly
An attempt has been made to develop new solder alloys for flip chip assembly using the CALPHAD approach based on gold, the safest element among all the elements being considered for this application.
Investigations of metal leaching from mobile phone parts using TCLP and WET methods.
Observations indicate that the TCLP seems to be a more aggressive test than the WET for the metal leaching from the mobile phone parts, and a scientifically sound and environmentally safe handling and disposal management system needs to be evolved for the mobilePhone disposal.
Surface topography, mineralogy, and Pb isotope survey of wheel weights and solder: Source of metal contaminants of roadways and water systems
Abstract Wheel weights and solders are among the most important anthropogenic lead sources in modern society. Characterization of size, shape, and stages of degradation of wheel weights and solders


Adopting Lead‐Free Electronics: Policy Differences and Knowledge Gaps
For more than a decade, the use of lead (Pb) in electronics has been controversial: Indeed, its toxic effects are well documented, whereas relatively little is known about proposed alternative
Leaching assessments of hazardous materials in cellular telephones.
The results improve existing environmental databases for e-waste and highlight the need to review regulatory testing for hazardous waste.
Implications of Pb-free microelectronics assembly in aerospace applications
The commercial microelectronics industry is rapidly implementing Pb-free assembly strategies and it should be mostly Pb free within the next decade. This trend is driven by existing and proposed
Comparative quantification of health risks. Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Volume 1.
This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the scientific evidence on prevalence and hazards, and the resulting health effects, of a range of exposures that are known to be hazardous to human health, including childhood and maternal undernutrition, nutritional and physiological risk factors for adult health, addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, and risks in the physical environments of households and communities.
California households' willingness to pay for ‘green’ electronics
Abstract Concerns about rapid increases in the volume of electronic waste (e-waste) and its potential toxicity have sharpened policy makers' interest for extended producer responsibility to encourage
Household Willingness to Recycle Electronic Waste
Electronic waste (e-waste) has become the main contributor of lead to landfills in the United States. Households also store large volumes of e-waste, yet little is known about their willingness to
Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil and combusted residue at Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in southeast China.
The crude processing of e-waste has become one of the major contributors of PBDEs and PCDD/Fs to the terrestrial environment and acid leaching and open burning emitted the highest concentrations.