Ptosis: Causes, Presentation, and Management

@article{Finsterer2003PtosisC,
  title={
Ptosis: Causes, Presentation, and Management
},
  author={Josef Finsterer},
  journal={Aesthetic Plastic Surgery},
  year={2003},
  volume={27},
  pages={193-204}
}
  • J. Finsterer
  • Published 21 August 2003
  • Medicine
  • Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Drooping of the upper eyelid (upper eyelid ptosis) may be minimal (1–2 mm), moderate (3–4 mm), or severe (>4 mm), covering the pupil entirely. Ptosis can affect one or both eyes. Ptosis can be present at birth (congenital) or develop later in life (acquired). Ptosis may be due to a myogenic, neurogenic, aponeurotic, mechanical or traumatic cause. Usually, ptosis occurs isolated, but may be associated with various other conditions, like immunological, degenerative, or hereditary disorders… 

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...

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This review summarizes those neurological diseases which are accompanied by a drooping of the upper lid, due to weakness of the m. levator palpebrae or m. tarsalis respectively. After connatal ptosis

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Therapeutic options in ocular myasthenia gravis