Pterosaur Stance and Gait and the Interpretation of Trackways

  title={Pterosaur Stance and Gait and the Interpretation of Trackways},
  author={Kevin Padian},
  pages={115 - 126}
  • K. Padian
  • Published 1 January 2003
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • Ichnos
The tracks ascribed to pterosaurs from the Late Jurassic limestones at Crayssac, France, must be pterosaurian because the manus prints are so far outside those of the pes, the pes print is four times longer than wide, and the manus prints appear to preserve distinct traces of a posteromedially directed wing-finger. These tracks are different in important ways from previously described Pteraichnus trackways, which have been variably considered pterosaurian, crocodilian, or indeterminate. No… 
First record of a pterosaur landing trackway
The first record of a pterosaur landing track is reported, which differs substantially from typical walking trackways and shows that pterosaurs stalled to land, a reflection of their highly developed capacity for flight control and manoeuverability.
Enigmatic Giant Pterosaur Tracks and Associated Ichnofauna from the Cretaceous of Korea: Implication for the Bipedal Locomotion of Pterosaurs
Enigmatic tracks and dinosaur trackways from lacustrine margin sediments of the Lower Cretaceous Haman Formation of the southern coast of Korea represent a new ichnospecies. Trackways with large,
In Quest of the Pteraichnus Trackmaker: Comparisons to Modern Crocodilians
  • T. Kubo
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2008
All crocodilian trackways collected in the present study revealed significant differences from Pteraichnus, which strongly suggests a non-crocodilian origin of Pteraicnus.
Were early pterosaurs inept terrestrial locomotors?
It is argued that characteristics possibly associated with terrestriality are deeply nested within Pterosauria and not restricted to Pterodactyloidea as previously thought, and that pterodACTyloid-like levels of terrestrial competency may have been possible in at least some early pterosaurs.
Structure and Evolution of the Ankle Bones in Pterosaurs and Other Ornithodirans
  • K. Padian
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology
  • 2017
A synoptic survey of available tarsal bones of pterosaurs shows that the morphology of these bones remained relatively unchanged from the most basal pter dinosaurs to the pteranodontids and the azhdarchoids, although some ornithodiran subgroups evolved unique schemes of development and sequential ossification.
The Extent of the Pterosaur Flight Membrane
It is strongly suggested that the trailing edge of the wing extended down to the lower leg or ankle in all specimens where the brachiopatagium is completely preserved, and is thus likely to have been universally present throughout the Pterosauria.
A Catalog of Pterosaur Pedes for Trackmaker Identification
  • D. Peters
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2011
A catalog of pterosaur pedal skeletons that can be matched to a wider spectrum of ichnites, including digitigrade and bipedal ICHnites previously not associated with pterosaurs are presented.
The trackmaker of Apatopus (Late Triassic, North America): implications for the evolution of archosaur stance and gait
Abstract:  For some decades, a major focus of research has been on how locomotor modes changed in some archosaurian reptiles from a more or less ‘sprawling’ to an ‘erect’ posture, whether there were
Locomoção Terrestre em Pterossauros - Uma Breve Revisão da Literatura Terrestrial Locomotion in Pterossauros - A Brief Revision of Literature
The pterosaurs had been the first reptiles to fly, however its locomotion in land still are partially unknown and in debate. In history many models had been adopted by them, but, only recently a


Pterosaur tracks and the terrestrial ability of pterosaurs
  • D. Unwin
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1996
Pteraichnus and Pteraicnus-like tracks show that, when grounded, some, perhaps all, pterosaurs were plantigrade, quadrupedal, and had a semi-erect stance and gait, consistent with some functional interpretations of pterosaur anatomy and resolves a long-running debate regarding the terrestrial ability of this group.
Foot posture in a primitive pterosaur
A large, uncrushed, partial skeleton of a new species of the basal pterosaur Dimorphodon in thick-bedded deposits of Tamaulipas, Mexico is found, which contradicts an important part of the cursorial interpretation that only the toes contacted the ground during terrestrial locomotion.
The fossil trackway Pteraichnus is pterosaurian, not crocodilian: Implications for the global distribution of pterosaur tracks
There has been much confusion regarding the fossil footprint record of pterosaurs, with both non‐pterosaurian tracks assigned to pterosaurs, and pterosaurian tracks assigned to non‐pterosaurian
Terrestrial locomotion in pterosaurs
It is suggested that in pterosaurs the wing membrane was attached to the upper leg, which helped in stretching, steering and cambering.
A functional analysis of flying and walking in pterosaurs
An analysis of the structure and kinematics of the forelimbs and hindlimbs of pterosaurs, and functional analogy with recent and fossil vertebrates, supports a reappraisal of the locomotory abilities
The fossil trackway Pteraichnus; not pterosaurian, but crocodilian
Experimental work on trackways coupled with considerations of limb kinematics and substrate conditions will permit the most robust inferences about paleoichnologic trackmakers, and will thus maximize the utility of fossil footprint data.
Three-dimensional preservation of foot movements in Triassic theropod dinosaurs
Dinosaur footprints have been used extensively as biostratigraphic markers, environmental indicators, measures of faunal diversity and evidence of group behaviour,. Trackways have also been used to
Terrestrial locomotion of pterosaurs: a reconstruction based on Pteraichnus trackways
A reconstruction of the terrestrial locomotion of pterosaurs is presented, based on Pteraichnus trackways that suggest that bird-like bipedal and sprawling to semi-erect postures, and the restrictive interpretations of limb and girdle joint mobilities upon which they are based, may be incorrect.
Biomechanics of Pteranodon
The fossil evidence is re-examined to determine the structure of Pteranodon ingens, and it is suggested that extinction could have been due to climatic change, particularly an increase in the average wind speed at the end of the Cretaceous.