Pten inactivation and the emergence of androgen-independent prostate cancer.

@article{Shen2007PtenIA,
  title={Pten inactivation and the emergence of androgen-independent prostate cancer.},
  author={Michael M Shen and Cory Abate-Shen},
  journal={Cancer research},
  year={2007},
  volume={67 14},
  pages={6535-8}
}
Hormone refractory disease represents a late-stage and generally lethal event in prostate tumorigenesis. Analyses of mouse models have recently shown that the onset of hormone independence can be uncoupled from disease progression and is associated with activation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt as well as Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in the prostate epithelium, which act in part to counterbalance the inhibitory effects of androgen receptor signaling in the… CONTINUE READING

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