Ptaquiloside-Induced Early-Stage Urothelial Lesions Show Increased Cell Proliferation and Intact b-Catenin and E-Cadherin Expression

Abstract

Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is a carcinogenic plant whose main toxin, ptaquiloside, causes cancer in farm and laboratory animals. Ptaquiloside contaminates underground waters as well as meat and milk from bracken-grazing animals and is a suspected human carcinogen. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis can be achieved by… (More)

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