Psychotropic Medication Patterns Among Youth in Foster Care

  title={Psychotropic Medication Patterns Among Youth in Foster Care},
  author={Julie Magno Zito and Daniel J. Safer and Devadatta Sai and James F. Gardner and Diane Thomas and Phyllis Coombes and Melissa Dubowski and Maria Mendez-Lewis},
  pages={e157 - e163}
CONTEXT. Studies have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate >3 times that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. Systematic data on patterns of medication treatment, particularly concomitant drugs, for youth in foster care are limited. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to describe and quantify patterns of psychotropic monotherapy and concomitant therapy prescribed to a randomly selected, 1-month… 

Tables from this paper

Psychotropic Medication Patterns among Youth in Juvenile Justice

The rate of psychotropic medicationuse was low, concomitant medication use was common, and ethnic/race differences in psychopharmacologic treatment were present in this sample of youths in post-adjudicatory secure facilities.

Reasons why Prescribers Decrease Psychotropic Medication for Foster Youth

Although prescribers frequently use psychotropic medication to treat emotional and behavioral problems for children in foster care, and states are required to monitor psychotropic medication usage

Outpatient Psychotropic Medication Use in the US: A Comparison Based on Foster Care Status

The conclusion that distinct sets of factors predict medication for the two groups was reinforced by results of multivariate analyses; foster care status moderates the association between medication receipt and only one of the correlates examined (gender).

Psychotropic Medication Use and Perceptions of Medication Effects Among Transition-Age Foster Youth

Examining the prevalence of psychotropic medication use over time, youths’ perceptions of the benefits of medication, and associations between medication use and behavioral health problems in transition-age foster youth concludes that most youth reported either a positive or neutral view of the relative benefits of using medications.

Antipsychotic Treatment Among Youth in Foster Care

Additional study is needed to assess the clinical rationale, safety, and outcomes of concomitant antipsychotic use among Medicaid-enrolled youth in foster care and to inform statewide policies for monitoring and oversight of antipsychotics use among youths in the foster care system.

Rates of psychotropic medication use over time among youth in child welfare/child protective services.

Examination of rates of psychotropic medication use over time among a national probability sample of youths involved with child welfare/child protective services (CW/CPS) in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) demonstrated complex relationships with group membership.

Inter-class Concomitant Pharmacotherapy in Medicaid-Insured Youth Receiving Psychiatric Residential Treatment

Findings support the practice of deprescribing and underscore the need for further research on the prevalence of concomitant pharmacotherapy in PRTFs.



Multiple psychotropic pharmacotherapy among child and adolescent enrollees in Connecticut Medicaid managed care.

Multivariate logistic regression revealed that participants who received psychotropics, alone or in combination, were significantly more likely to be in state custody, male, and older than other participants and less likely to being African American or Hispanic.

Psychotropic medication treatment patterns among school-aged children in foster care.

Among those children who received a clinician diagnosis of a severe psychiatric disorder for which medication is an accepted component of care, boys were more likely to receive medication treatment than girls, and stimulants were the most common class of medication used in the past year.

Concomitant psychotropic medication for youths.

Substantive systematic evidence is needed to clarify this increasingly common, inadequately researched child psychopharmacologic practice.

Multimodal treatment for ADHD among youths in three Medicaid subgroups: disabled, foster care, and low income.

Among a cohort of Medicaid-enrolled youths with ADHD, co-existing psychiatric disorders and complex psychopharmacologic treatments were more common in the disabled and foster care groups than in the low-income group.

Multiple psychotropic medication use for youths: a two-state comparison.

Examination of multiple psychotropic use among youths enrolled in two U.S. mid-Atlantic state Medicaid and state Children's Health Insurance Programs found Stimulants with antidepressants, antipsychotics, or alpha-agonists were the most common combinations.

Effect of Medicaid eligibility category on racial disparities in the use of psychotropic medications among youths.

OBJECTIVE This study sought to determine the degree to which Medicaid eligibility categories modify disparities between black and white youths in the prevalence of psychotropic medication. METHODS

Mental health services for youths in foster care and disabled youths.

It was revealed that the prevalence of mental disorders among youths enrolled in foster care was twice that of youths receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and nearly 15 times that of other youths receiving other types of aid.

Concomitant pharmacotherapy among youths treated in routine psychiatric practice.

With high rates of concomitant pharmacotherapy among children and adolescents in psychiatric care, additional research on efficacy and safety of this treatment strategy is necessary.

New users of antipsychotic medications among children enrolled in TennCare.

The proportion of TennCare children who became new users of antipsychotics nearly doubled from 1996 to 2001, with a substantial increase in use of antippsychotics for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and affective disorders.

Use of mental health services among older youths in foster care.

The child welfare system was actively engaged in arranging mental health services for youths in the foster care system, but the system was unable to maintain many youths in less restrictive living situations.