Psychosurgery: past, present, and future

@article{Mashour2005PsychosurgeryPP,
  title={Psychosurgery: past, present, and future},
  author={George A. Mashour and Erin E. Walker and Robert L. Martuza},
  journal={Brain Research Reviews},
  year={2005},
  volume={48},
  pages={409-419}
}
Ablative Surgery for Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Past, Present, Future
TLDR
While there are some advantages to DBS over ablative methods, it is important to keep in mind that the two modalities are neither functionally nor clinically equivalent, and while DBS is a new and experimental modality with unproven long-term effects, there is extensive experience with lesioning that supports its benefit for carefully selected psychiatric patients.
Lesioning and Stimulation as Surgical Treatments for Psychiatric Disorders
TLDR
This review outlines and compares current attempts at the treatment of psychiatric disorders through neurosurgical techniques and compares the results of lesioning techniques with those of stimulation of the brain to compare their relative merits and complications.
A Controversial Past
TLDR
The success of deep brain stimulation, a new reversible and adaptable therapy devised for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, has offered the hope of new forms of treatment for patients with severe psychiatric disorders like OCD, and these new neuromodulation-based treatments are reshaping the field of psychosurgery.
Neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders: from the excision of brain tissue to the chronic electrical stimulation of neural networks.
TLDR
The transition from the indiscriminate destruction of brain structures to the selected electrical modulation of neural networks lies ahead; contemporary neuroscientists would substantiate this aim but should remind the controversial history of the field.
Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric conditions: A return to the dark ages or a revolution in treatment?
TLDR
The objective of this paper is to briefly outline the history of psychosurgery and DBS, to mention the current indications for DBS in the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions, and to outline the role of the medical professional in the successful implementation of this technology.
Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders: where we are now.
TLDR
Fossil records showing trephination in the Stone Age provide evidence that humans have sought to influence the mind through physical means since before the historical record, which is rekindling interest in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disorders with stimulation of deep brain sites involved in emotional and behavioral circuitry.
Disrupting disordered neurocircuitry: treating refractory psychiatric illness with neuromodulation.
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References

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TLDR
Indications and postoperative sequelae vary slightly across treatments, but the indications remain as affective, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.
Psychosurgery: a historical overview.
TLDR
A better understanding of the colorful history of psychosurgery should enable modern neurosurgeons and other health care professionals to meet the social, ethical, and technical challenges that are sure to lie ahead.
Modern neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders.
TLDR
Recent outcome studies, together with advances in neurobiology, psychiatry, functional imaging, and stereotaxy, support the further investigation of modern functional neurosurgical procedures to treat psychiatric disorders and their application for a subset of psychiatric patients with conditions refractory to all other therapies.
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TLDR
The following article chronicles the early days of psychosurgery, including the factors responsible for its inception and the different techniques used through the years.
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TLDR
The author has collected information and interviews which suggest that a rehearing is in order for the new psychosurgery and there is an urgent need for effective surgical procedures for psychiatric and social problems.
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It is apparent that modulation of neural systems subserving psychiatric phenomenon can be accomplished by DBS, and the few published studies on DBS for obsessive-compulsive disorder suggest that this can be done safely.
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It is suggested that deep brain stimulation of appropriate targets may be an effective and safe treatment for certain patients with OCD and a potentially reversible treatment for those patients who do not obtain therapeutic benefit.
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