Psychosexual Characteristics of Men and Women Exposed Prenatally to Diethylstilbestrol

@article{TitusErnstoff2003PsychosexualCO,
  title={Psychosexual Characteristics of Men and Women Exposed Prenatally to Diethylstilbestrol},
  author={Linda T Titus-Ernstoff and Kimberly M. Perez and Elizabeth E. Hatch and Rebecca Troisi and Julie R. Palmer and Patricia Hartge and Marianne Hyer and Raymond H. Kaufman and Ervin Adam and William C. Strohsnitter and Kenneth L. Noller and Kate E. Pickett and Robert Hoover},
  journal={Epidemiology},
  year={2003},
  volume={14},
  pages={155-160}
}
Background. Between 1939 and the 1960s, the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) was given to millions of pregnant women to prevent pregnancy complications and losses. The adverse effects of prenatal exposure on the genitourinary tract in men and the reproductive tract in women are well established, but the possible effects on psychosexual characteristics remain largely unknown. Methods. We evaluated DES exposure in relation to psychosexual outcomes in a cohort of 2,684 men and 5,686… 
Reproductive outcomes in men with prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol.
TLDR
Prenatal DES exposure may be associated with a slightly increased risk of having an infertility experience, but does not increase the likelihood of never fathering a pregnancy or a live birth, or the number of pregnancies or live births fathered.
Adverse health outcomes in women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.
TLDR
In utero exposure of women to DES is associated with a high lifetime risk of a broad spectrum of adverse health outcomes, and the risks among exposed women were higher for those with vaginal epithelial changes than for those without such changes.
Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Identity in Women and Men Prenatally Exposed to Diethylstilbestrol
TLDR
Women who were prenatally exposed to DES were less likely to have a lesbian or bisexual orientation, while DES-exposed men were somewhat more likely to report being gay or bisexual, but estimates were imprecise.
Menstrual and reproductive characteristics of women whose mothers were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES).
TLDR
Findings of menstrual irregularity and possible infertility in third-generation women are preliminary but compatible with speculation regarding transgenerational transmission of DES-related epigenetic alterations in humans.
Diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero and depression in women.
TLDR
The results suggest that the neurophysiologic effects of in utero exposure to DES could lead to an increased risk of depression in adult life, and whether in uterno exposure to bisphenol A has similar adverse effects is investigated.
Prenatal Diethylstilbestrol Exposure and Risk of Depression in Women and Men.
TLDR
Prenatal DES exposure was not associated overall with risk of depression in women or men, and exposure in early gestation or to a low cumulative DES dose may be weakly associated with an increased depression risk.
Serious psychiatric outcome of subjects prenatally exposed to diethylstilboestrol in the E3N cohort study
TLDR
The findings suggest that the impact of prenatal DES exposure on foetal brain development, if any, is unlikely to increase the risk of serious psychiatric disorders.
PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLSTILBESTROL (DES) IN MALES AND GENDER-RELATED DISORDERS: RESULTS FROM A 5-YEAR STUDY
TLDR
This paper contributes an overview of published literature discussing the confirmed and suspected adverse effects of prenatal exposure in DES sons, preliminary results from a 5-year online study of DES sons and documentation of the presence of gender identity disorders and male-to-female transsexualism reported by more than 100 participants in the study.
Impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on psychological outcome: a national survey of DES daughters and unexposed controls
TLDR
Findings regarding psychological outcome obtained in the high-risk group of women prenatally exposed to DES may contribute to improving identification of psychological needs of all women presenting with gynecological abnormalities.
Current perspective of diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure in mothers and offspring.
TLDR
There is an urgent need to find ways to stop the inheritance cycle of DES and prevent adverse effects of DES in the future generations.
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References

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TLDR
High doses of diethylstilbestrol did not lead to impairment of fertility or sexual function in adult men who had been exposed to the drug in utero.
Infertility among women exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol.
TLDR
It is indicated that diethylstilbestrol-exposed women have a higher risk of infertility than do unexposed women and that the increased risk ofertility is primarily due to uterine or tubal problems.
Cancer risk in men exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.
TLDR
To date, men exposed to DES in utero do not appear to have an increased risk of most cancers, but it remains uncertain whether prenatal DES exposure is associated with testicular cancer.
Sexual orientation after prenatal exposure to exogenous estrogen
Thirty women aged 17 to 30 years with documented prenatal exposure to the nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) were compared to thirty women of similar demographic characteristics
Depression and diethylstilbestrol exposure in women.
TLDR
There were significant differences between DES-exposed women and their sisters in major depression and major recurrent depression, but there were no significant differences in depression between Papanicolaou controls and the DES exposed, suggesting that major and recurrent depressions are more likely to result from concern about reproductive and other gynecologic problems than from the hormonal effects of intrauterine exposure to DES.
Cancer risk in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero.
TLDR
Because exposed daughters included in this study were, on average, only 38 years old at last follow-up, continued surveillance is warranted to determine whether any increases in cancer risk occur during the menopausal years.
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In psychobiological research on sexual orientation, the prenatal hormone theory has a central posi tion. This article examines the hypothesis that prenatal estrogens contribute to the development of
Upper genital tract changes associated with exposure in utero to diethylstilbestrol.
TLDR
In 40 women exposed to stilbestrol, changes in the uterus which differed significantly from those seen in the past in nonexposed individuals were noted, including a 'T-shaped appearance of the uterus,' constricting bands in the uterine cavity, a hypoplastic uterus, and less frequently, intrauterine polypoid defects, synechiae, and in one instance a unicornuate uterus.
Psychosexual milestones in women prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol
TLDR
Thirty women aged 17 to 30 years with a record-confirmed history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol were compared to 30 women of similar age and demographic background with a history of abnormal Pap smear findings, finding that the groups differed neither in the age at menarche nor in the Age at attainment of various psychosexual milestones.
Psychopathology and social functioning in men prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES).
TLDR
Both groups showed high rates of lifetime depression, lifetime alcoholism, and current psychiatric symptoms in excess of community norms and the only diagnosis on which DES subjects exceeded their unexposed brothers was Major Depressive Disorder.
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