Psychopharmacology for young children: clinical needs and research opportunities.

@article{Vitiello2001PsychopharmacologyFY,
  title={Psychopharmacology for young children: clinical needs and research opportunities.},
  author={Benedetto Vitiello},
  journal={Pediatrics},
  year={2001},
  volume={108 4},
  pages={
          983-9
        }
}
  • B. Vitiello
  • Published 1 October 2001
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Pediatrics
In response to concerns about the increasing use of psychotropic medications in preschoolers, the National Institute of Mental Health and the Food and Drug Administration convened a workshop in October 2000 to examine the current state of knowledge regarding psychopharmacology for young children and discuss a variety of topics relevant to research in this age group, including safety, efficacy, investigational methods, and ethical aspects. The meeting gathered researchers, practitioners… 
Ethical issues in child psychopharmacology research and practice: emphasis on preschoolers
TLDR
Some challenges facing mental health care providers involved in prescribing or researching the use of psychoactive drugs in preschoolers are reviewed, including those related to medical treatment and research with children.
Pediatric psychopharmacology: A review of new developments and recent research
TLDR
The authors conclude that the current clinical use of psychotropics in children exceeds extant efficacy and safety data.
Evidence-based psychopharmacology for children and adolescents
TLDR
There is now significantly more evidence available to support the rational prescribing of psychoactive agents for several child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, however, there are still many gaps in knowledge and further studies are required before it will be possible to practise in a truly evidence-based manner.
Ethical considerations in psychopharmacological research involving children and adolescents
TLDR
Research on human subject issues relevant to child participation is a promising approach to improving ethical methods and procedures of pediatric psychopharmacology.
Psychopharmacologic treatment of aggressive preschoolers: A chart review
  • J. Staller
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
  • 2007
Psychotropic utilization and psychiatric presentation of hospitalized very young children.
TLDR
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and nature of psychotropics prescribed by child psychiatrists to very young children with severe functional impairment secondary to psychiatric pathology, and the clinical context in which these psychotropicics were prescribed.
The impact of prescribed psychotropics on youth
TLDR
It is concluded that researchers should clarify child/adult differences for psychotropics, attend to the growth of "cosmetic" use of psychotropic use in children and adolescents, and address concerns about the diagnostic validity of mental illness in the current DSM classification system.
Use of psychotropic agents in preschool children: associated symptoms, diagnoses, and health care services in a health maintenance organization.
TLDR
Most children receiving psychopharmacotherapy had substantial additional risk factors and were receiving psychosocial services for mental health or behavioral management, and such treatment was only infrequently received in this health plan.
Informed consent & ethical issues in paediatric psychopharmacology.
TLDR
Issues relating to informed consent and ethics in paediatric psychopharmacology limit research in this population and in India the sociocultural realities are different from those in the western countries making it necessary for professionals to be cautious in conducting drug trials.
The Use of Psychostimulants in Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Developmental Disabilities in a Community Setting
TLDR
The use of stimulants for symptoms of ADHD in children with developmental disabilities and disruptive behavior disorders is effective when ADHD occurs alone, and is also effective, with augmentation in some cases, when comorbid conditions are present.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 32 REFERENCES
Medication development and testing in children and adolescents. Current problems, future directions.
TLDR
Recommendations for possible solutions are presented, some of which are being implemented, and there is no substitute for pediatric psychopharmacological research.
Controlled Trial of Methylphenidate in Preschool Children with Minimal Brain Dysfunction
TLDR
The intent of the study was to maintain, as nearly as possible, the requirements of proper short-term care on a clinical basis while, at the same time, collecting physical, behavioral, cognitive, and background data on the children undergoing treatment.
Effects of methylphenidate on preschool children with ADHD: cognitive and behavioral functions.
TLDR
It is suggested that methylphenidate can be used to improve the functioning of preschool-age children with ADHD, in a manner similar to their school-age counterparts.
Trends in the prescribing of psychotropic medications to preschoolers.
TLDR
Sizable increases in prevalence were noted between 1991 and 1995 across the 3 sites for clonidine, stimulants, and antidepressants, while neuroleptic use increased only slightly.
Efficacy of methylphenidate among preschool children with developmental disabilities and ADHD.
TLDR
It is suggested that preschool children with developmental disabilities and ADHD respond to MPH at rates similar to those of school-age children with mental retardation and ADHD, however, this population appears to be especially susceptible to adverse drug side effects.
Diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and use of psychotropic medication in very young children.
TLDR
To identify patterns of diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in very young children over time, a descriptive study of Michigan Medicaid claims data identified 223 children aged 3 years or younger diagnosed with ADHD and received markedly variable psychotropic medication regimens.
Sertraline in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
TLDR
Sertraline appears to be a safe and effective short-term treatment for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Increased methylphenidate usage for attention deficit disorder in the 1990s.
TLDR
The database findings presented serve to correct exaggerated media claims of a 6-fold expansion of methylphenidate treatment, although they do not clarify the issue of the appropriateness of this treatment.
Fluvoxamine for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial.
  • M. Riddle, E. Reeve, J. Walkup
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • 2001
TLDR
Fuvoxamine has a rapid onset of action and is well tolerated and efficacious for the short-term treatment of pediatric OCD.
...
...