Psychopharmacological analysis of implicit and explicit memory: a study with lorazepam and the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil

  title={Psychopharmacological analysis of implicit and explicit memory: a study with lorazepam and the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil},
  author={Kim I. Bishop and H. Valerie Curran},
Recent studies have suggested that the benzodiazepine (BZ) lorazepam (LZ) differs from other BZs in its impairing effects on implicit memory tasks. The present study was designed to assess whether this atypical effect withstood the experimental rigour of Schacter's retrieval intentionality criterion and further, whether it could be reversed by the BZ antagonist, flumazenil (FL). The separate and combined effects of LZ, FL and placebo (PL) were assessed on indices of memory, sedation, and… 

Encoding, remembering and awareness in lorazepam-induced amnesia

Findings replicated previous findings showing that both lorazepam and L-o-pependently affect performance in an explicit memory task of word recognition, which suggests drug-induced deficits at encoding persist regardless of the level at which information is initially processed.

Lorazepam induces an atypical dissociation of visual and auditory event-related potentials

Differences in the impairment profile between equipotent doses of lorazepam and flunitrazepam suggests that lorzepam induces atypical central visual processing changes.

Anti-Intrusion Effect of Lorazepam: An Experimental Study

Support is provided for the enhanced perceptual priming hypothesis of PTSD by suggesting the possibility of lorazepam as a candidate anti-intrusion drug, as well as the cautious use of diazepam in the treatment of PTSD patients.

Lorazepam and scopolamine: A single-dose comparison of effects on human memory and attentional processes.

At the studied doses, lorazepam and scopolamine produced similar decrements in psychomotor performance, free recall, and overall sensitivity in distinguishing between studied and nonstudied items on a recognition memory test.

Triazolam-amphetamine interaction: dissociation of effects on memory versus arousal

Results suggest that benzodiazepines do have specific effects on memory that are not merely a by-product of the drugs' sedative effects, and that the degree to which sedatives contribute to the amnestic effects may vary as a function of the particular memory process being assessed.

Zolpidem and memory: a study using the process-dissociation procedure

Zolpidem leads to cognitive effects similar to most benzodiazepines, including impairment of exclusion, but not inclusion-task performance, and the pattern of effects on the stem-completion tasks involved in this paradigm is potentially useful in the investigation of cognitive effects of psychoactive drugs.

Effects of benzodiazepines on explicit memory in a paediatric surgery setting

It appears that benzodiazepines do impair memory in a pediatric population, and this amnesia was not secondary to the inattention and sedation also caused by midazolam administration.

Acute Effects of Ketamine on Memory Systems and Psychotic Symptoms in Healthy Volunteers

The data suggest that, in humans, ketamine produces a selective pattern of impairments to working, episodic, and procedural memory but not to perceptual priming, attention or aspects of executive functioning.

A triazolam/amphetamine dose–effect interaction study: dissociation of effects on memory versus arousal

Benzodiazepines have specific effects on memory that are not merely a by-product of the drugs’ sedative effects, and the degree to which sedatives contribute to the amnestic effects varies as a function of the particular memory process being assessed.

Decreases in recollective experience following acute alcohol: a dose–response study

Alcohol-induced impairments in recognition memory occur in a dose-dependent manner, specifically driven by reductions in recognition associated with conscious awareness.



Benzodiazepines, memory and mood: a review

The present review focuses on the extent to which the amnestic effects of BZs are separable from their sedative and anxiolytic effects, and presents a conceptual framework for evaluating the interrelationship between the various effects.

Effects of lorazepam on memory, attention and sedation in man: antagonism by Ro 15-1788

It is found that lorazepam impaired verbal secondary memory performance, but also produced subjective and objective sedation; it increased reaction time, reduced critical flicker fusion thresholds and caused subjects to make more errors on a sustained attention task and rate themselves as drowsy.

Lorazepam and diazepam effects on memory acquisition in priming tasks

Surprisingly, diazepam also decreased priming when information was acquired after drug administration, suggesting that, at least in certain circumstances, the two benzodiazepines may exert similar effects on priming measures.

Effects of chlorpromazine and lorazepam on explicit memory, repetition priming and cognitive skill learning in healthy volunteers

Preliminary results suggest that chlorpromazine and lorazepam induced a double dissociation between priming and the acquisition of a cognitive routine, providing evidence that the two forms of implicit memory rely upon distinct neurochemical systems, the latter, but not the former, being dependent upon dopaminergic systems.

Differential effects of diazepam and lorazepam on repetition priming in healthy volunteers

The results indicate that the two benzodiazepines have differential amnestic effects, and it is suggested that these differential effects could be accounted for by a different cortical distribution of the twoBenzodiazepine.

Memory functions, alprazolam and exposure therapy: a controlled longitudinal study of agoraphobia with panic disorder

The present longitudinal study assessed whether BZs impair memory functions in a clinically anxious group of agoraphobics with panic disorder, finding that alprazolam patients were still impaired on the task compared with placebo patients at the 24-week medication-free follow-up.

Is lorazepam-induced amnesia specific to the type of memory or to the task used to assess it?

Retrieval tasks can be classified along a continuum from conceptually driven (relying on the encoded meaning of the material) to data driven (relying on the perceptual record and surface features of

Specific memory and sedative effects of the benzodiazepine triazolam

The pattern of memory changes induced by benzodiazepines, such as triazolam, is similar to the memory inpairment expressed in amnestic patients but unlike the pattern of impaired memory evident in dementia such as Alzheimer's disease.

Amnestic effects of lormetazepam and their reversal by the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788

Interestingly, lormetazepam retrogradely enhanced performance in the visual test of delayed free recall and may be associated with an improvement of the consolidation process of information acquired before drug treatment.

Differential effects of lorazepam and oxazepam on priming

Both BZs impair episodic memory but only lorazepam impairs priming, and BZ effects on the explicit task were more associated with levels of sedation than their effect on the implicit task.