This article presents a framework through which nurses can conceptualize premature labor and birth for both practice and research. Use of the psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) model may guide the study of the problem of preterm birth in a more holistic manner, discovering relationships between the body and the mind that may affect how nurses can intervene to prevent premature birth. Nursing assessment of risk needs to include those situations that may lead to increased stress or anxiety, as is supported by research based on the PNI model. Reduction of stressors that lead to physiological changes related to the stress response can affect the incidence of preterm labor. Interventions to decrease stress and poor coping behaviors need to be tested and integrated into practice.