Psychoneuroimmunology: conditioning and stress.

  title={Psychoneuroimmunology: conditioning and stress.},
  author={Robert Joseph Ader and Nicholas Cohen},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
  • R. Ader, N. Cohen
  • Published 1993
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Annual review of psychology
The acquisition and extinction of the conditioned suppression or enhancement of one or another parameter of antigen-specific and nonspecific defense system responses have been documented in different species under a variety of experimental conditions. Similarly, stressful stimulation influences antigen-specific as well as nonspecific reactions. Moreover, both conditioning and stressful stimulation exert biologically meaningful effects in the sense that they can alter the development and/or… 
Behavioral conditioning of the immune system.
Increased knowledge about the neuropsychological machinery steering learning and memory processes together with recent insight into the mechanisms mediating placebo responses provides fascinating perspectives to exploit these learned immune and neuroendocrine responses as supportive therapies, the aim being to reduce the amount of medication required, diminishing unwanted drug side effects while maximizing the therapeutic effect for the patient's benefit.
Psychoneuroimmunology--mind-brain-immune interactions.
  • S. Whitesman, R. Booth
  • Biology, Psychology
    South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde
  • 2004
The neuroendocrine and immune systems share a common molecular language which serves to integrate the two systems primarily involved in systemic homeostasis, providing a network of communication between ‘mind’, brain and body.
Stressed to death: Implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology
Psycho-immunologie: un modèle en question
Estrés y sistema inmune
In conclusion, stress and its hormones, glucocorticoids and catecholamines, are capable to alter the illness onset and course and also delay healing of wounds, with a consequent significant economical and social impact.


CNS–immune system interactions: Conditioning phenomena
Converging data from different disciplines indicate that central nervous system processes are capable of influencing immune responses and it appears that the immune system is integrated with other psychophysiological processes and subject to modulation by the brain.
Behaviorally conditioned suppression of the immune response by antilymphocyte serum.
The study reported here indicates that rabbit anti-rat lymphocyte serum (ALS) which is selectively cytotoxic for lymphocytes and does not produce sensory side effects can similarly induce taste aversion conditioning of the immune response.
Factors Involved in the Classical Conditioning of Antibody Responses in Mice
Evidence is sought which would support the notion that during immunomodulation, an organism can make some form of an association between non-antigenic environmental cues and a physiological stimulus known to perturb the immune system in a predictable way.
Characterization of immune alterations induced by a conditioned aversive stimulus
The findings establish that a signal for an aversive event can have a pronounced effect on immune function, but that such an effect is dependent on the particular compartment of the immune system studied and suggest that additional pathways must be involved in the immune alterations induced by a conditioned aversive stimulus.
Hypersensitiveness and the Conditioned Reflex *
Whatever the role of antibody in resistance to infection-whether it be a prerequisite to, a concomitant of, or a consequence of immunity-the fact remains that a study of antibody inception and action offers as satisfactory an approach to the study of immune phenomena as is now available.
Social and Psychobiological Factors in Autoimmune Disease
Behavioral and neural influences on cellular immune responses: effects of stress and interleukin-1.
The relationship between the newly-discovered immunosuppressive influence of IL-1 in the brain and Immunosuppression produced by stressful conditions remains to be determined.