Psychological factors in exceptional, extreme and torturous environments

  title={Psychological factors in exceptional, extreme and torturous environments},
  author={John Leach},
  journal={Extreme Physiology \& Medicine},
  • J. Leach
  • Published 2016
  • Medicine
  • Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be ‘exceptional’, e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; ‘extreme’, marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g… Expand
Psychology, extreme environments, and counter-terrorism operations
ABSTRACT Counter-terrorism (CT) operations may involve intelligence-gathering, reconnaissance, surveillance, or direct action (e.g. arrest) to disrupt terrorist activities, and can take place inExpand
Cognitive performance during prolonged periods in isolated, confined, and extreme environments
Abstract Background Astronauts are required to perform a variety of cognitively demanding tasks in the face of multiple prolonged stressors in isolated, confined and extreme (ICE) environments.Expand
Monitoring daily events, coping strategies, and emotion during a desert expedition in the Middle East
  • N. Smith, E. Barrett, G. Sandal
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Stress and health : journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
  • 2018
Variation in events and coping strategies significantly predicted fluctuations in positive and negative affect during a unique hyperarid desert expedition, which offers valuable mechanistic information that could inform monitoring systems aimed at tracking psychological variables during operations in extreme environments. Expand
Personal Peculiarities as a Factor of Arctic Workers' Socio-Psychological Well-Being
The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the aptitude of sprinters, stayers, and mixters for work in the Arctic. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was used. The study enrolledExpand
Psychological torture: Characteristics and impact on mental health
This critical commentary aims to define and characterize psychological torture (PT) while exploring practical, legal, ethical and therapeutic implications relevant to clinicians and policymakers. Expand
Coping strategies for the participants in the Antarctic expedition
The ХХV Bulgarian Antarctic expedition on the Livingston isles, which included scientists and alpinists, began in November 2016. The aim of the present research is to study security need andExpand
Sleep in Antarctica: from the Sleep Disturbances Towards All the Challenges
From the fi rst expeditions, adaptation to the harsh environment of Antarctica, the expeditionists complained of a trouble sleeping. During a long stay on the continent, the polar explorers areExpand
"Befogging reason, undermining will: Understanding the prohibition of sleep deprivation as torture and ill-treatment in international law.
  • Ergun Cakal
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Torture : quarterly journal on rehabilitation of torture victims and prevention of torture
  • 2019
The legal literature on deprivation of sleep, the definition, and prohibition of torture and ill-treatment, and its health impacts is reviewed to find more nuanced legal principles, informed by medical evidence, are lacking. Expand
Psychological Screening for Exceptional Environments: Laboratory Circadian Rhythm and Sleep Research
Selecting participants who constitute a representative sample while protecting them from potential adverse outcomes is a concern for clinical researchers. Our research group conducts deep phenotypingExpand
Befogging reason, undermining will: Understanding sleep deprivation as torture and other ill-treatment in international law
T O R T U R E V o lu m e 2 9 , N u m b e r 2 , 2 0 1 9 Abstract Background: Sleep deprivation is a prevalent method of psychological torture. However, difficulties in documentation have meant that itExpand


Psychological adaptation and salutogenesis in space: Lessons from a series of studies
Abstract Individuals who adapt positively to an inhospitable or extreme environment can derive benefit from their experiences. This positive effect may include an initial improvement in mental healthExpand
Maladaptive behavior in survivors: dysexecutive survivor syndrome.
  • J. Leach
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • 2012
The case is presented that during the initial phase of a survival incident, victims show a transient, nonclinical dysexecutive syndrome, and a model is given suggesting how this condition may arise under survival conditions to aid survival training and provide a context for conducting behavioral autopsies by accident investigators. Expand
  • M. Zuckerman
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1964
This paper will attempt to analyze possible sources of stress within the situation and personalities of Ss by reviewing the results of a number of studies, and concentrate on endurance of subjects in isolation, verbal reports during and. Expand
Whole lot of parts: stress in extreme environments.
  • G. Steel
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • 2005
This study reviews some of the strengths and weaknesses of the actuarial and case history methods, and presents a four celled taxonomy of stress based on method and effects (distress and eustress), which indicates that for both research and operational purposes, the person, the setting, and time should not be considered independently. Expand
The worst scars are in the mind: psychological torture
  • H. Reyes
  • Sociology
  • International Review of the Red Cross
  • 2007
Abstract Torture during interrogation often includes methods that do not physically assault the body or cause actual physical pain and yet entail severe psychological pain and suffering andExpand
Inquiry into the Structure of Mentation Processes
  • S. Houston
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychological reports
  • 1967
The hypothesis is explored that the deviant functioning of mentation under these and similar circumstances results from one particular type of deprivation—that of human interchange—and that such interchange is essential for the development and optimal maintenance of cognitive processes. Expand
The trauma of psychological torture
Series Foreword by Gilbert Reyes Introduction- Almerindo E. Ojeda 1. What Is Psychological Torture? - Almerindo E. Ojeda 2. Psychological Terror as a Cold War Imperative - Matthew Gildner 3. LegacyExpand
Human challenges in polar and space environments
This paper reviews literature on psychosocial adaptation in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments, focusing on polar work groups and expedition teams, and simulation and actual spaceExpand
What can abnormal environments tell us about normal people? Polar stations as natural psychology laboratories.
  • P. Suedfeld
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of environmental psychology
  • 1998
The psychological effects of unusual environments reveal different aspects of behaviour from those seen in more customary situations, and the environment offers unique perspectives on environmental perception and cognition; adaptation to and use of the environment; environmental bonding; social interaction; and coping with environmental challenge. Expand
Psychological changes arising from an Antarctic stay: systematic overview
Long-term stays in extreme environments, such as Polar Regions, may cause significant changes in the health and well-being of individuals. A systematic overview aimed to map studies about theExpand