Psychological and behavioural aspects of patients with Turner syndrome from childhood to adulthood: a review of the clinical literature

@article{Christopoulos2008PsychologicalAB,
  title={Psychological and behavioural aspects of patients with Turner syndrome from childhood to adulthood: a review of the clinical literature},
  author={Panagiotis Christopoulos and Efthymios Deligeoroglou and Varvara Laggari and Stylianos Christogiorgos and Georgios Creatsas},
  journal={Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics \& Gynecology},
  year={2008},
  volume={29},
  pages={45 - 51}
}
Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal abnormality, which occurs in approximately one of every 2500 female births. Short stature, infertility, additional physical abnormalities, skeletal and medical problems may be present. Genetic, hormonal, and medical problems associated with TS are likely to affect psychosexual development of female adolescents patients, and thus influence their psychological functioning, behavior patterns, social interactions and learning ability. Although TS constitutes a… 
Major depressive disorder in an adolescent with Turner syndrome: a case report
TLDR
An adolescent with mosaic karyotype TS who had major depressive disorder with the predisposing cause of psychosocial burden is described, and relieved with the treatment of sertraline and complete remission with combined use of estradiol valerate.
The patient with Turner syndrome: puberty and medical management concerns.
TLDR
Management of infants, girls, and women with TS involves coordinated care from a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologists, cardiologists, geneticists, otolaryngologists, behavioral health experts, nurse educators, and social workers.
Case Management Guidelines on Neurodevelopmental and Psychosocial Problems of Turner Syndrome
TLDR
Positive effects on the lives of patients with Turner syndrome, as well as on those of family members, may be prevented by providing multidisciplinary yearly diagnosis-prevention-intervention programmes.
Turner's syndrome: challenges of late diagnosis.
TLDR
Girls and women with Turner's syndrome who come to medical attention older than 12 years present a challenge of medical management and induction of puberty regimens lack an evidence base or even clear guidelines for the timing and dose of oestrogen replacement.
Turner Syndrome: Addressing How Misconceptions Overshadow Opportunities for a “Normal” Life
Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic condition found only in females. Responsible for an estimated 10% of all miscarriages and stillbirths, an estimated 99% of pregnancies involving monosomy TS (the
Face perception in women with Turner syndrome and its underlying factors
TLDR
The results do not support the claim that the impairments in face processing observed in TS are related to difficulties in social cognition, and point to the possibility that face perception difficulties in TS stem from visual-spatial impairments and may not be specific to faces.
Turner syndrome and sexual differentiation of the brain: implications for understanding male-biased neurodevelopmental disorders
TLDR
What is currently known about cognition and brain development in individuals with TS is reviewed, underlying mechanisms and their relevance to understanding male-biased neurodevelopmental conditions are discussed, and directions for future research are suggested.
Impact of Age and Duration of Growth Hormone Therapy in Children with Turner Syndrome
Background/Aims: To assess height standard deviation scores (HSDS) in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) by age at treatment initiation and varying durations of treatment with growth hormone (GH).
Turner syndrome: review of clinical, neuropsychiatric, and EEG status: an experience of tertiary center
TLDR
FSIQ and verbal IQ that seem to be at a nearly normal level and a decreased performance IQ are found and the motor performance in TS was disturbed, with some neurological deficits present in 17 % of patients.
Turner syndrome: advances in understanding altered cognition, brain structure and function.
  • R. Knickmeyer
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Current opinion in neurology
  • 2012
TLDR
A better understanding of brain structure and function in Turner syndrome will generate new therapeutic approaches for this population and identify several critical research needs.
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References

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[Turner syndrome: psychosocial aspects].
TLDR
The objective of this paper is to review the literature on psychosocial aspects of TS, mainly the psychological effect caused by short stature, delayed pubertal development and infertility, self-esteem, social aspects, gender identity, sexual functioning, love relationships, family relationships, cognitive functioning, psychiatric diseases and the presence of a "chronic disease.
An introduction to Turner syndrome.
TLDR
Nurses specialising in paediatric endocrinology have a valuable role in supporting the child and family and in educating families and colleagues with regard to the medical, psychosocial and educational needs of these children.
Turner Syndrome: A Review of Genetic and Hormonal Influences on Neuropsychological Functioning
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  • Psychology, Medicine
    Child neuropsychology : a journal on normal and abnormal development in childhood and adolescence
  • 2004
TLDR
The TS neurobehavioral profile arises from an atypical cerebral organization caused by the complex interplay of insufficient expression of certain (unknown) genes on the X chromosome and by abnormal hormonal levels; however, it is still not clear exactly how the specific genes affect broader cognitive abilities.
The Psychoeducational Characteristics of Children with Turner Syndrome
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  • Psychology, Medicine
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TLDR
Comparing abilities, achievement, behavior, and self-esteem in 67 children with TS and 27 nonaffected controls indicates selective impairments in visuospatial and memory areas and significant underachievement in arithmetic, particularly numerical ability, mental calculation, geometry, and reasoning.
Psychological well-being in women with Turner syndrome: Somatic and social correlates
TLDR
Lack of sex hormones during adult life and the presence of hearing impairment were related to lower psychological well-being, as were higherAge at diagnosis, higher age at menarche or induced bleeding, higher chronological age and retrospectively reported difficulties with school subjects.
Middle-aged women with Turner's syndrome. Medical status, hormonal treatment and social life.
TLDR
A study of 49 middle-aged women with Turner's syndrome was performed to evaluate medical status, hormonal treatment and social life, and Elevated liver enzymes were found in almost all the women.
Turner syndrome: Four challenges across the lifespan
TLDR
Enhanced awareness of the evolving physical and psychological challenges faced by girls and women with TS may help health care providers (HCPs) improve the quality of life for these individuals.
The psychological consequences of Turner syndrome and review of the National Cooperative Growth Study psychological substudy.
TLDR
The comprehensive treatment of girls with TS should include educational and behavioral interventions in addition to traditional medical therapies, and decreases in specific Child Behavior Checklist subscales, including attention, social problems, and withdrawal, were seen in the clinical groups after GH therapy.
Absence of growth hormone effects on cognitive function in girls with Turner syndrome.
TLDR
It is concluded that this study does not support a role for growth hormone in influencing childhood brain development in girls with Turner syndrome, and characteristic nonverbal neurocognitive deficits were not altered with GH treatment into early adolescence.
Appropriate use of estrogen replacement therapy in adolescents and young adults with Turner syndrome and hypopituitarism in light of the Women's Health Initiative.
  • M. Warren, Abigail T Chua
  • Medicine
    Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • 2006
TLDR
It is appropriate to examine the relative risks and benefits of ERT in adolescents with hypopituitarism and Turner syndrome and the highly publicized findings of the Women's Health Initiative.
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