Psychological and Behavioural Effects of Endogenous Testosterone and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

  title={Psychological and Behavioural Effects of Endogenous Testosterone and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids},
  author={Michael S. Bahrke and Charles E. Iii Yesalis and James E. Wright},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
SummaryEndogenous testosterone levels have been linked to aggressive behaviour in both animals and humans. Studies administering moderate doses of exogenous testosterone for contraceptive and clinical purposes reveal essentially no adverse effects on male sexual and aggressive behaviour. However, investigations and case reports of athletes, usually involving higher doses, demonstrate an association between anabolic-androgenic steroid use and affective and psychotic syndromes and psychological… 
Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
Although prevalence of AAS dependency is difficult to determine, and there might be as many as 300,000 AAS users yearly in the United States, it appears that only a small percentage of users experience psychological dependence requiring clinical treatment.
Behavioral and physiological responses to anabolic-androgenic steroids
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
The level of evidence for treating anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence is currently based on case reports and series as well as expert opinion, and knowledge of the psychiatric, physical, and laboratory findings aids detection.
Illicit anabolic–androgenic steroid use
Current Concepts in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
  • N. Evans
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of sports medicine
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Clinical studies have discovered novel therapeutic uses for physiologic doses of AAS, without any significant adverse effects in the short term, and guidelines for the clinical evaluation of Aas users will be presented for sports medicine practitioners.
Effects of Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids in Athletes
Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed and little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions.
Diagnosis of male depression in the community and its correlation with cortisol and testosterone
The main overall aim of this thesis was to improve detection and thus treatment of depression among males by investigating psychotropic drug use by gender compared to drugs for acid related disorders and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use.


Psychological and Behavioural Effects of Endogenous Testosterone Levels and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Among Males
SummaryThe psychological and behavioural effects of endogenous testosterone levels and anabolic-androgenic steroids in males have been investigated for over 50 years in both clinical and nonmedical
Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. A controlled study of 160 athletes.
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  • Medicine, Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
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Major mood disturbances associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids may represent an important public health problem for athletes using steroids and sometimes for the victims of their irritability and aggression.
Psychiatric effects and psychoactive substance use in anabolic-androgenic steroid users.
In conclusion, AAS use may lead to psychiatric disorders in certain individuals and concurrent use of psychoactive drugs other than AAS does not appear to be common in intensively training weight lifters and bodybuilders.
Psychological moods and subjectively perceived behavioral and somatic changes accompanying anabolic-androgenic steroid use
The data suggest that while perceived or actual psychological changes may occur in anabolic-androgenic steroid users, either the effects are too subtle or the inventories used were insensitive for detecting them.
Metabolic and behavioral effects of high-dose, exogenous testosterone in healthy men.
There was a trend toward increased arousal and spontaneous erections during T administration, but this did not reach statistical significance, and little change was found in self-reported sexual and aggressive behaviors during the study.
Symptoms and correlates of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.
The data support the notion that AASs are addicting, and suggest that dissatisfaction with body size may lead to dependent patterns of use.
The effects of exogenous testosterone on sexuality and mood of normal men.
It is concluded that supraphysiological levels of testosterone maintained for up to 2 months can promote some aspects of sexual arousability without stimulating sexual activity in eugonadal men within stable heterosexual relationships.
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  • Biology, Psychology
    British journal of psychology
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This review assesses studies involving androgens, principally testosterone, and human aggression, and suggests that the outcome of aggressive and competitive encounters can alter testosterone levels, thus confounding interpretation of the correlational evidence.
Psychiatric Symptoms Associated with Anabolic Steroids: A Controlled, Retrospective Study
It is concluded that the organic affective changes associated with anabolic steroid abuse usually present as a subsyndromal depressive disorder of insufficient severity to be classified as a psychiatric disorder.