Psychological Trauma and PTSD in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis

  title={Psychological Trauma and PTSD in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis},
  author={Edward L. Machtinger and T. C. Wilson and Jessica E. Haberer and Daniel S. Weiss},
  journal={AIDS and Behavior},
Women bear an increasing burden of the HIV epidemic and face high rates of morbidity and mortality. Trauma has been increasingly associated with the high prevalence and poor outcomes of HIV in this population. This meta-analysis estimates rates of psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in HIV-positive women from the United States. We reviewed 9,552 articles, of which 29 met our inclusion criteria, resulting in a sample of 5,930 individuals. The findings demonstrate highly… 

Type and severity of intimate partner violence and its relationship with PTSD in HIV-infected women

The results indicate the need for screening for alcohol abuse, PTSD and depressive symptoms at HIV wellness, and ARV clinics and the high rates of PTSD in HIV-positive women indicate theneed for specialized programs to manage PTSD and minimize negative sequelae in this population of women.

High rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms in women living with HIV in Canada

The results demonstrate that womenliving with HIV have high rates of PTSS, and that rates and variables associated with these symptoms vary by province, and suggest the need for trauma-informed practices and care for women living with HIV in Canada, which may need to be tailored for the community and identities of the women.

Prevalence of Traumatic Events and Symptoms of PTSD Among South Africans Receiving an HIV Test

The majority of participants indicated that they had experienced at least one index event that qualified for PTSD, even though a small proportion actually met the diagnostic criteria for the disorder.

Trauma history in African-American women living with HIV: effects on psychiatric symptom severity and religious coping

Screening for PTSD in WLHIV could identify a subset that would benefit from evidence-based PTSD-specific therapies in addition to mental health interventions already in place, and allow for more effective treatment of comorbid mental health disorders.

Internalized HIV Stigma and Mindfulness

Theoretically, the present findings suggest that internalized HIV stigma may serve as a vulnerability factor for the severity of certain PTSD symptoms, whereas acting with awareness may function as a protective or resiliency factor forThe severity of PTSD symptoms.

Recent Trauma is Associated with Antiretroviral Failure and HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Women and Female-Identified Transgenders

Data from a prevention-with-positives program was analyzed to understand if socio-economic, behavioral, and health-related factors are associated with antiretroviral failure and HIV transmission-risk behaviors among 113 HIV-positive biological and transgender women.

Global estimate of the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among adults living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis

It is highlighted that PTSD should be routinely screened for and that more effective prevention strategies and treatment packages targeting PTSD are needed in PLWH.

Interventions to Improve Psychological Functioning and Health Outcomes of HIV-Infected Individuals with a History of Trauma or PTSD

  • S. Seedat
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Current HIV/AIDS Reports
  • 2012
Group cognitive-behavioral strategies, including prolonged exposure, coping skills training, and stress management have, to date, shown some evidence for efficacy in HIV-positive individuals with childhood trauma and in those with PTSD.

Risk and protective factors of posttraumatic stress disorder among African American women living with HIV

The results suggest that age, education, and internalized stigma were found to be associated with PTSD symptoms, with older age and more education as protective factors and stigma as a risk factor for PTSD.



Traumatic stress in HIV-infected women.

  • R. KimerlingK. Calhoun L. Clark
  • Psychology
    AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
  • 1999
It is concluded that prevention and treatment efforts targeted at HIV-infected women must take into account traumatic stressors and PTSD symptoms and their potential impact on the course of the disease.

Posttraumatic stress disorder in women attending human immunodeficiency virus outpatient clinics.

Given the high percentages of women who were found to have experienced traumatic life events and high levels of PTSD symptoms, it seems important to assess and treat PTSD in women with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Trauma, coping, and depression among women with HIV/AIDS in New York City

The association between childhood abuse and CES-D scores persisted even after controlling for relevant demographic variables, more recent trauma and coping strategies, and implications for improving the psychological functioning of women living with HIV/AIDS are discussed.

Relation of lifetime trauma and depressive symptoms to mortality in HIV.

Examination of the effects of lifetime trauma, recent stressful events, and depression on all-cause and AIDS-related mortality among HIV-infected men and women confirmed previous findings showing that stress and depression have an impact on HIV disease progression.

Women, Trauma, and HIV: An Overview

The research in this section goes beyond describing women’s risky behaviors and examines the contributions of personal and interpersonal sexual and physical abuse trauma as independent risk factors for HIV risk behaviors.

Violence Among Women with or at Risk for HIV Infection

HIV-infected women with low CD4 cell counts were less likely than the other women to experience recent violence, and while the lower rate of recent violence among those with lowCD4 cell count probably represents effects of HIV-related disability, women at highrisk for HIV remain at high risk for violence.

Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey.

Progress in estimating age-at-onset distributions, cohort effects, and the conditional probabilities of PTSD from different types of trauma will require future epidemiologic studies to assess PTSD for all lifetime traumas rather than for only a small number of retrospectively reported "most serious" traumAs.

The impact of PTSD on pain experience in persons with HIV/AIDS

Post-traumatic stress disorder in HIV-positive incarcerated women.

  • C. Lewis
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
  • 2005
It is suggested that HIV-positive female inmates with lifetime PTSD are a complex population who are likely to need careful psychiatric assessment, and medical and mental health treatment.

Physical and sexual abuse in the lives of HIV-positive women enrolled in a primary medicine health maintenance organization.

Information obtained in the present study suggests that care providers need to be aware of the unique life circumstances of women with AIDS, which may predispose them to a number of negative health and mental health outcomes.