Psychobiology of altered states of consciousness.

@article{Vaitl2005PsychobiologyOA,
  title={Psychobiology of altered states of consciousness.},
  author={Dieter Vaitl and Niels Birbaumer and John H. Gruzelier and Graham Jamieson and Boris Kotchoubey and Andrea K{\"u}bler and Dietrich Lehmann and Wolfgang H. R. Miltner and Ulrich Ott and Peter P{\"u}tz and Gebhard Sammer and Inge Strauch and Ute Strehl and Jiřı́ Wackermann and Thomas Weiss},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  year={2005},
  volume={131 1},
  pages={
          98-127
        }
}
The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the multiple ASC resulted in 4 dimensions by which they can be characterized: activation, awareness span, self-awareness, and sensory dynamics. The… 

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