Psychoactive tryptamines from basidiomycetes

  title={Psychoactive tryptamines from basidiomycetes},
  author={M. Wurst and Roman Kysilka and Miroslav Flieger},
  journal={Folia Microbiologica},
The review lists natural sources,i.e. strains and species of fungi producing predominantly psychoactive tryptamines (indolealkylamines), their chemical structure and properties, toxic effects on the man and psychic symptoms of intoxication. It describes the biosynthesis and production of some tryptamines by the mycelial culture ofPsilocybe bohemicaŠebek, a survey of methods for their analysis and isolation. It evaluates the worldwide use and abuse of psychoactive fungi as sources of drugs in… 
Actual Concepts of Higher Fungi’s Toxins: Simple Nitrogen-Containing Compounds
Abstract Higher fungi represent a group of living organisms that remain poorly studied in terms of mycology and biochemistry. Among their secondary metabolites, toxic compounds are of particular
Identification of ω-N-Methyl-4-hydroxytryptamine (Norpsilocin) as a Psilocybe Natural Product.
A simple and artifact-free extraction method is presented that prevents dephosphorylation and therefore helps reflect the naturally occurring metabolic profile of Psilocybe mushrooms in subsequent analyses.
The hallucinogenic world of tryptamines: an updated review
A comprehensive update on tryptamine hallucinogens, concerning their historical background, prevalence, patterns of use and legal status, chemistry, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics and their physiological and toxicological effects on animals and humans is provided.
Occurrence and use of hallucinogenic mushrooms containing psilocybin alkaloids
Although psilocybin-containing mushrooms are not what Nordic mushroom pickers are trying to find as food or food supplement, there is a risk, admittedly small, that these mushrooms accidentally will be collected and this may be a legal problem in some Nordic countries.
An Overview on the Taxonomy, Phylogenetics and Ecology of the Psychedelic Genera Psilocybe, Panaeolus, Pluteus and Gymnopilus
This review discusses species identification, taxonomy and classification, available DNA sequence data and psychedelic species in Psilocybe, Panaeolus, Pluteus, and Gymnopilus, as well as similar looking genera that could be harmful.
Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis.
Monitoring stability of freshly cultivated fruit bodies of Psilocybe cubensis showed that the highest degradation of tryptamines was seen in fresh mushrooms stored at -80°C and the lowest decay wasseen in dried biomass stored in the dark at room temperature.
Secondary metabolites from the culture broth of Lactarius quieticolor growing in a bioreactor
In this work, the main secondary metabolites in Lactarius quieticolor cultivated in a bioreactor were determined to find a possible use for its broths, which are eliminated as waste products after
Historical overview of psychoactive mushrooms
The history of the use of psychoactive mushrooms, from pre-history to the modern age, is summarized, their classification and distribution are described, previous studies are surveyed, and their therapeutic effects for difficult-to-treat nervous disease are discussed.
Bioactive Molecules in Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms for Human Wellness
Mushrooms are now gaining popularity not only as an ordinary culinary ingre-dient, but as a healthy and whole functional food. This chapter describes three major categories of bioactive molecules


Indole alkaloids in plant hallucinogens.
Richard Spruce (1852) learnt that caapi was cultivated, and saw that it belonged to the order Malpighiaceae and the genus Banisteria, of which he made it out to be an undescribed species.
An ethnomycological review of psychoactive agarics in Australia and New Zealand.
A comprehensive review is presented of the recreational and accidental ingestion of psychoactive mushrooms in Australia and New Zealand; 15 recognized species are considered from Australia and eight
Psilocybin und Psilocin, zwei psychotrope Wirkstoffe aus mexikanischen Rauschpilzen
The psychotropically active principles of the Mexican hallucinogenic fungus Psilocybe maxicana HEIM have been isolated and obtained in crystalline form and are present in the fruit bodies, the artificially cultivated mycelium and in the sclerotia.
The production of psilocybin in submerged culture by Psilocybe cubensis.
The occurrence of certain indole derivatives in many of the basidiomycetes to which psychotomimetic properties have been ascribed is of particular interest since they are the only principles isolated from mushrooms which are capable of inducing psychotomIMetic effects in human beings following oral ingestion.
Psilocybin, ein psychotroper Wirkstoff aus dem mexikanischen RauschpilzPsilocybe mexicana Heim
The active principle ofPsilocybe mexicana Heim, a mexican mushroom with hallucinogenic properties, has been isolated in crystalline form. The compound has been given the namePsilocybin; it possesses
Isoputrin and Butrin, the Antihepatotoxic Principles of Butea monosperma Flowers1
Since an extract from the flowers of BUTEA MONOSPERMA showed significant activity in different models of liver damage, the extract was fractionated by solvent partitioning and HPLC, and activity monitored by means of CCl 4 and GalN-induced liver lesion IN VITRO.
The occurrence of psilocybin and psilocin in Finnish fungi.
In this study, a variety of Finnish fungi were screened for their psilocybin and psilocin content using two methods of hplc.
Mycological Investigations on Teonanácatl, The Mexican Hallucinogenic Mushroom. Part I. The History of Teonanácatl, Field Work and Culture Work
The use of hallucinogenic mushrooms in Mexico was reported by European and Mexican writers (11) centuries ago, and so is not news. Nor are mushrooms unique as hallucinogens. It is widely known that