Psychiatry and political–institutional abuse from the historical perspective: The ethical lessons of the Nuremberg Trial on their 60th anniversary

@article{LpezMuoz2007PsychiatryAP,
  title={Psychiatry and political–institutional abuse from the historical perspective: The ethical lessons of the Nuremberg Trial on their 60th anniversary},
  author={Francisco Javier L{\'o}pez-Mu{\~n}oz and Cecilio {\'A}lamo and Michael J Dudley and Gabriel Rubio and Pilar Garc{\'i}a-Garc{\'i}a and Juan D. Molina and Ahmed Said Okasha},
  journal={Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry},
  year={2007},
  volume={31},
  pages={791-806}
}
  • F. López-Muñoz, C. Álamo, A. Okasha
  • Published 9 May 2007
  • Medicine, Psychology, Political Science
  • Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
Psychiatry in Nazi Germany: an ethical analysis and relevance to psychiatry today
  • R. D. Gillies, Izaak Lim
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Australasian psychiatry : bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
  • 2021
TLDR
A duty-based code of ethics that enshrines universal respect for the humanity, dignity and autonomy of all persons, and condemns the misuse of professional knowledge and skills, may be a safeguard against the future political abuse of psychiatry.
The political use of psychiatry: A comparison between totalitarian regimes
TLDR
Psychiatry has been variously used by totalitarian regimes as a means of political persecution and especially when it was necessary to make acceptable to public opinion the imprisonment of political opponents.
The role of doctors in torture: from middle age to Abu Ghraib
Torture is a practice as old as humanity itself, although its objectives have changed throughout history. The participation of medical personnel in the exercise of torture has been common in some
An Analysis of Physician Behaviors During the Holocaust: Modern Day Relevances
TLDR
This article will explore the imperative role, moral risks and deliberate actions of physicians who participated in the amplification process from “euthanasia” to systemic murder to medically-sanctioned genocide.
Maltreatment of People With Serious Mental Illness in the Early 20th Century: A Focus on Nazi Germany and Eugenics in America
  • B. Fischer
  • Psychology
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease
  • 2012
TLDR
Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.
Vulnerability and Protection in Research: Is It Ethical to Use Prisoners as Research Subjects?
This paper reviews the basis for and the literature pertaining to the ethical issues surrounding the use of the vulnerable population of prisoners as subjects for research protocols. The foundation
Objections to Coercive Neurocorrectives for Criminal Offenders –Why Offenders’ Human Rights Should Fundamentally Come First
“Committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention”, claims Thomas Douglas, who stated in this context that “compulsory uses of medical correctives could in
Ethics, patient rights and staff attitudes in Shanghai's psychiatric hospitals
TLDR
It is indicated that most psychiatric hospitals in Shanghai have no Medical Ethics Committee and more than half the medical staff had not received systematic education and training in medical ethics and they have insufficient knowledge of the ethical issues related to clinical practice and trials.
Psychotropic drugs research in Nazi Germany: The triumph of de principle of malfeasance
TLDR
There is evidence of psychopharmacological research programmes, without the slightest ethical requirements or legal protection, in two specific groups of subjects: first, the mentally handicapped and mentally ill; and second, healthy subjects, usually from rejected ethnic or social groups, recruited in concentration camps.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 103 REFERENCES
Modern psychiatric ethics
Ideology and ethics. The perversion of German psychiatrists' ethics by the ideology of national socialism
  • L. Singer
  • Psychology, Medicine
    European Psychiatry
  • 1998
Psychiatrists as a Moral Community? Psychiatry Under the Nazis and its Contemporary Relevance
  • M. Dudley, F. Gale
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry
  • 2002
Objective: In Nazi-occupied Europe, substantial numbers of psychiatrists murdered their patients while many other psychiatrists were complicit with their actions. This paper addresses their
Legacies of Nuremberg. Medical ethics and human rights.
The 50th anniversary of the Doctors Trial at Nuremberg provides an important opportunity to reflect on its legacy to both medical ethics and human rights. While many contemporary physicians view
Lessons from history: the politics of psychiatry in the USSR.
  • I. Spencer
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing
  • 2000
TLDR
This article shows how psychiatric abuse in the USSR was a historically specific response to a particular situation, and some of the conclusions about Western psychiatry extrapolated from the Soviet experience are unsupportable.
The ethics of biomedical research on prisoners
TLDR
The subject of research among prisoners is revisited, mindful of the dictum of a Persian Prince, to ‘experiment freely’ but not on ‘people of high rank or political importance’.
The Declaration of Madrid and its implementation. An update.
  • A. Okasha
  • Psychology, Medicine
    World psychiatry : official journal of the World Psychiatric Association
  • 2003
TLDR
The Declaration of Hawaii was the first positional statement of the psychiatric profession concerning ethical questions and led to the United Nations Resolution 46/119 for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care (Principles for Policy on Mental Health).
Informed consent in human experimentation before the Nuremberg code
TLDR
New research indicates that ethical issues of informed consent in guidelines for human experimentation were recognised as early as the nineteenth century, which shed light on the still contentious issue of when the concepts of autonomy, informed consent, and therapeutic and non-therapeutic research first emerged.
The Declaration of Madrid and its implementation.
  • A. Okasha
  • Psychology, Medicine
    World psychiatry : official journal of the World Psychiatric Association
  • 2002
TLDR
The preparations for the Declaration of Madrid went beyond the development of a document into creating a circle of psychiatrists interested in the field of professional ethics, and acknowledges that medical professionals are facing new ethical dilemmas resulting from increasingly complex medical interventions, new tensions between the physician and the patients, and new social expectations from the physician.
The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide
TLDR
Robert Jay Lifton, a renowned psychiatrist and author, spent a decade interviewing Nazi doctors and concentration camp survivors to piece together the horrifying process by which German physicians aided (for the most part willingly) in the destruction of 6 million innocent men, women, and children.
...
...