Psychiatry's role in the holocaust.

  title={Psychiatry's role in the holocaust.},
  author={Peter Roger Breggin},
  journal={The International journal of risk \& safety in medicine},
  volume={4 2},
  • P. Breggin
  • Published 1993
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The International journal of risk & safety in medicine
German psychiatrists proposed the extermination of mental patients before Hitler came to power. Then in Nazi Germany, organized psychiatry implemented involuntary eugenical sterilization and euthanasia, ultimately killing up to 100000 German mental patients. The six psychiatric euthanasia centers utilized medical professionals, fake death certificates, gas chambers disguised as showers, and the mass burning of corpses.Psychiatrists from the euthanasia program also participated in the first… 

The Extermination of Psychiatric Patients in Occupied Slovenia in 1941

German psychiatrists examined all 380 patients of the psychiatric hospital in Novo Celje in May 1941 and ordered the execution of the majority and transported them to the Hartheim "euthanasia institute" near Linz, transferring only around 30 younger employable patients to the psychiatrichospital in Feldhof in Austria.

Resistance: Pathologising Dissent

Cohen draws on Marxist theory to demonstrate how psychiatry, as a supporting institution of capitalism, is responsible for neutralising threats to the authority of the marketplace using the

Nazi Crimes on People with Disabilities in the Light of International Law – a Brief Review

The legal bases of the sentences issued in the trial are introduced and the process of shaping the responsibility of individuals in international law is highlighted, as well as the participation of Polish law enforcement agencies in prosecuting crimes against humanity committed on the patients of psychiatric hospitals and care centers in Poland.

The politicization of psychology: the role of psychologists in Indonesia’s detention camps during New Order Era

The study investigates the rationalities and implications of the use of psychol-ogy in Indonesia’s detention camp during New Order Era. The historical event on 30 September 1965 led to mass arrest

Origins of Racism in American Medicine and Psychiatry

Girded with an understanding of the historical context of how blacks view medicine and psychiatry, health care systems, policy makers, and providers can undo racism and racial mental health disparities by engaging in antiracism work and advocating for this work to be implemented and embedded in all aspects of organized psychiatry and medical education.

Commentary: The Third Reich--German physicians between resistance and participation.

  • E. Ernst
  • Medicine
    International journal of epidemiology
  • 2001
Despite all the activities of Karl Astel, the Scientific Institute for Research into the Dangers of Tobacco achieved only marginal scientific significance and reputation and the Institute was disbanded and remained forgotten for half a century.

A Leading Medical School Seriously Damaged: Vienna 1938

  • E. Ernst
  • History
    Annals of Internal Medicine
  • 1995
This paper attempts to summarize the darkest chapter in the history of the Alma Mater Rudolphina, the Medical Faculty of Vienna, which was harmed more than anywhere else during the Third Reich.

The fate of the mentally ill during the Second World War (1940–1945) in Troms and Finnmark, Norway

The study is the first to give a systematic account of how the mentally ill fared during the deportation of Finnmark and Northern Troms and afterwards and draws comparisons between Nazi politics and actions towards mentally ill in Norway and Germany.

Marxist Theory and Mental Illness: A Critique of Political Economy

“If sociologists of medicine are truly serious about accurately researching issues of health and illness,” argues Bruce Cohen, “then there is an urgent need to contextualise our work in a set of

Involuntary Psychiatric Interventions: A Breach of the Hippocratic Oath?

  • P. Stastny
  • Medicine
    Ethical Human Sciences and Services
  • 2000
In this article the author argues that involuntary psychiatric interventions are inherently dangerous and potentially harmful to their subjects, thus challenging the Hippocratic ethical principle of



The fate of the mentally ill in Germany during the Third Reich

  • J. Meyer
  • Psychology
    Psychological Medicine
  • 1988
This paper surveys the measures taken against mental patients in Germany during the National Socialist regime, and attention is drawn to a prevalent fear of national degeneration, to social Darwinism, and the ideas of Binding & Hoche on 'permission for the extermination of worthless life'.

The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide

Robert Jay Lifton, a renowned psychiatrist and author, spent a decade interviewing Nazi doctors and concentration camp survivors to piece together the horrifying process by which German physicians aided (for the most part willingly) in the destruction of 6 million innocent men, women, and children.

Mercy killing without consent. Historical comments on a controversial issue

In recent discussions on euthanasia the question about mercy killing without consent of mentally ill persons has turned up, particularly in cases of hopeless suffering among senile or chronically

Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others, Germany 1933-1945

Author's Preface to the English Edition Acknowledgements Translator's Preface Translator's Notes on Terminology A Note on German Academic Organization Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations Used in the


I. A group of 838 patients in the private practice of a psychiatrist on the Pacific Coast is found to come from homes above the average of the state's population in socio-economic status, and much

Liberty and psychiatry

The security facilities available in one regional health authority area have been surveyed. The simultaneous run-down of the large mental hospitals and the open-door policy have resulted in a lack of

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich

Fifteen years after the war which brought it into existence, the first German Republic met catastrophe. Fifteen years after the war which led to its formation, the second German Republic seems far

Manual of Psychiatry and Mental Hygiene

in their own words where this has conduced to clarity and vividness. In the field of psychotherapy, for example, though he himself stresses the importance of suggestion as a therapeutic factor, lie

Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis

This book discusses German Medical journals under the Nazis, the Sterilization Law, and the "Organic Vision" of Nazi Racial Science.

Who's Who in Nazi Germany

Who's Who in Nazi Germany looks at the individuals who influenced every aspect of life in Nazi Germany. It covers a representative cross-section of German society from 1933-1945, and includes: * Nazi