Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance

  title={Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance},
  author={R. R. Griffiths and Waldo Richards and Ud McCann and Robert Jesse},
RationaleAlthough psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes, little is known scientifically about its acute and persisting effects.ObjectivesThis double-blind study evaluated the acute and longer-term psychological effects of a high dose of psilocybin relative to a comparison compound administered under comfortable, supportive conditions.Materials and methodsThe participants were hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious or spiritual activities… 
Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later
When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences that, at 14-month follow-up, were considered by volunteers to be among the most personally meaningful and spiritually significant of their lives.
spiritual significance 14 months later Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and
Psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes; however, little is known scientifically about its long-term effects. We previously reported the effects of a double-blind study
Psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences: immediate and persisting dose-related effects
Under supportive conditions, 20 and 30 mg/70 kg psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences having persisting positive effects on attitudes, mood, and behavior.
Psilocybin-Induced Mystical-Type Experiences are Related to Persisting Positive Effects: A Quantitative and Qualitative Report
Psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin have shown substantial promise for the treatment of several psychiatric conditions including mood and addictive disorders. They also have the remarkable property
A phenomenological examination of psilocybin use and its positive and persisting aftereffects
This study is an examination of the positive and persisting psychological and behavioral aftereffects in eight individuals who reported consumption of psilocybin-containing mushrooms. Mushrooms
Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors
Both high-dose psilocybin groups showed large significant positive changes on longitudinal measures of interpersonal closeness, gratitude, life meaning/purpose, forgiveness, death transcendence, daily spiritual experiences, religious faith and coping, and community observer ratings.
Acute and post-acute behavioral and psychological effects of salvinorin A in humans
The present results indicate similarities as well as differences between the subjective effects of S. divinorum and other hallucinogenic states beyond serotonergic mechanisms as a selective kappa opioid receptor agonist.
Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction.
Smoking cessation outcomes were significantly correlated with measures of mystical experience on session days, as well as retrospective ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance of psilocybin sessions, suggesting a mediating role of Mystical experience in psychedelic-facilitated addiction treatment.
Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: A proof-of-concept study
A single-group proof-of-concept study to quantify acute effects of psilocybin in alcohol-dependent participants and to provide preliminary outcome and safety data, providing a strong rationale for controlled trials with larger samples to investigate efficacy and mechanisms.
The subjective experience of acute, experimentally-induced Salvia divinorum inebriation
This study examined the overall psychological effects of inebriation facilitated by the naturally-occurring plant hallucinogen Salvia divinorum using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to provide an initial framework for greater understanding of the subjective effects of Salviadivinorum, an emerging drug of abuse.


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The view that entactogens constitute a distinct psychoactive substance class taking an intermediate position between hallucinogens and stimulants is supported, and is in line with both users’ reports and results from previous experimental studies.
Psychometric assessment of the Hallucinogen Rating Scale.
LSD, Spirituality, and the Creative Process
Ah, the good old days. As scientists face hurdle after hurdle to obtain approval for research with psychedelics, it’s worthwhile to look back at a time before the War on Drugs, when studying the
Comparison of the reactions induced by psilocybin and LSD-25 in man
  • H. Isbell
  • Biology, Psychology
  • 2004
After both drugs, abnormal mental states characterized by feelings of strangeness, difficulty in thinking, anxiety, altered sensory perception (particularly visual), elementary and true visual hallucinations, and alterations of body image were reported by the subjects.
Transient reinforcing effects of phenylisopropylamine and indolealkylamine hallucinogens in rhesus monkeys
The results indicate that no compound generated reliable responding and that no subject ever self-administered 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine at rates above those engendered by contingent saline, which may indicate that these compounds have weak reinforcing effects, or mixed reinforcing and aversive effects.
Reinforcing and subjective effects of methylphenidate in humans
  • L. Chait
  • Psychology
    Behavioural pharmacology
  • 1994
Methylphenidate had no effect on ratings of drug liking, but did increase ratings indicative of “positive” mood, CNS stimulation and anxiety, and was related to variability in subjective response to the drug across choice trials.
Cross-Cultural Generalizability of the Spiritual Transcendence Scale in India
Spirituality can be perceived as a universal human experience, as evidenced by recent advances in theobiology and neurotheology. Our aspiration to find meaning within our own mortality is fundamental
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In this research, 73 participants were categorized according to religious orientation (intrinsic, extrinsic, or indiscriminately pro) and were subjected to an isolation tank experience under one of
The Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogens