Pseudoreplication and the Design of Ecological Field Experiments

@article{Hurlbert1984PseudoreplicationAT,
  title={Pseudoreplication and the Design of Ecological Field Experiments},
  author={Stuart H. Hurlbert},
  journal={Ecological Monographs},
  year={1984},
  volume={54},
  pages={187-211}
}
  • S. Hurlbert
  • Published 1 February 1984
  • Psychology
  • Ecological Monographs
Pseudoreplication is defined. [] Key Result Scrutiny of 176 experi- mental studies published between 1960 and the present revealed that pseudoreplication occurred in 27% of them, or 48% of all such studies that applied inferential statistics. The incidence of pseudo- replication is especially high in studies of marine benthos and small mammals. The critical features of controlled experimentation are reviewed. Nondemonic intrusion is defined as the impingement of chance events on an experiment in progress. As…

Figures and Tables from this paper

Logic of experiments in ecology: is pseudoreplication a pseudoissue?
TLDR
Hurlbert divides experimental ecologist into ‘those who do not see any need for dispersion, and those who do recognize its importance and take whatever measures are necessary to achieve a good dose of it’.
Don't let spurious accusations of pseudoreplication limit our ability to learn from natural experiments (and other messy kinds of ecological monitoring)
TLDR
Key publications on the topic are reviewed to illustrate the debate that exists about the conceptual validity of pseudoreplication and recommendations for fair and consistent treatment are given for authors, reviewers, and editors.
Pseudoreplication is a pseudoproblem.
TLDR
The authors argue that the core ideas behind pseudoreplication are based on a misunderstanding of statistical independence, the nature of control groups in science, and contexts of statistical inference.
Pseudoreplication conventions are testable hypotheses.
  • R. G. Coss
  • Psychology
    Journal of comparative psychology
  • 2009
TLDR
Schank and Koehnle's simulations showed that averaging samples to produce a single datum destroys the information within experimental units and is mathematically equivalent to the treatment level in a nested analysis of variance.
Pseudoreplication invalidates the results of many neuroscientific studies
TLDR
P pseudoreplication undermines the conclusions from statistical analysis of data, and it would be easier to detect if the sample size, degrees of freedom, the test statistic, and precise p-values are reported.
Pseudoreplication and Its Frequency in Olfactometric Laboratory Studies
TLDR
The analysis showed the low importance given to obtaining independent replicates in bioassays involving olfactometric responses of insects to semiochemicals and the most frequent sources of pseudoreplication were the reuse of the device and the use of groups of test insects.
Number 09 / 43 Pseudoreplication invalidates the results of many neuroscientific studies by Stanley
TLDR
P pseudoreplication undermines the conclusions from statistical analysis of data, and it would be easier to detect if the sample size, degrees of freedom, the test statistic, and precise p-values are reported.
The problem of pseudoreplication in neuroscientific studies: is it affecting your analysis?
  • S. Lazic
  • Medicine, Psychology
    BMC Neuroscience
  • 2009
TLDR
Pseudoreplication can undermine the conclusions of a statistical analysis, and it would be easier to detect if the sample size, degrees of freedom, the test statistic, and precise p-values are reported.
A Bayesian predictive approach for dealing with pseudoreplication
TLDR
A Bayesian predictive approach is proposed, which enables researchers to make valid inferences about biological entities of interest, even if they are pseudoreplicates, and the benefits of this approach are shown using two in vivo data sets.
On misinterpretations of pseudoreplication and related matters: a reply to Oksanen
Pseudoreplication has become a widely accepted label for a certain class of statistical error common in the literature of ecology as well as of other fields. A wide-ranging critique by L. Oksanen
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 190 REFERENCES
The Role of Microhabitat in Structuring Desert Rodent Communities
Interspecific competition is thought to be important in determining patterns of resource use and species abundances in natural communities. However, there have been few field tests of
An Experimental Analysis of Dispersal in Fluctuating Vole Populations: Demographic Parameters
TLDR
In the removal—grid and fenced—enclosure experiments, more dispersal occurred when resident populations were increasing or at peak densities than during phases of declining density.
An Experimental Study of Dispersal in the California Ground Squirrel
TLDR
Three hypotheses to explain the importance of dispersal in small mammal populations are examined in an experimental study of the California ground squirrel: regulation of density, promotion of outcrossing, and avoidance of competition for mates.
Experimental Species Removal: Demographic Responses by Sigmodon hispidus and Reithrodontomys fulvescens
TLDR
The results suggest interspecific interactions and/or behavioral interactions may be of secondary importance in determining the demographic structure of rodents in this system.
Techniques of analysis of variance in experimental marine biology and ecology
The Effects of Sodium Arsenite and Silvex on the Plankton Populations in Farm Ponds
TLDR
With this technique, replications of treatment plots and control plots can be made in the same pond, thereby eliminating the problem of variability among ponds, and a larger number of experiments can be conducted during one season.
Vertebrate Pollination and the Maintenance of Dioecism in Freycinetia
  • P. Cox
  • Biology
    The American Naturalist
  • 1982
TLDR
The data from the study were found to generate a concave fitness set, indicating that dioecism rather than hermaphroditism is an evolutionarily stable strategy.
Species densities of macrobenthos associated with seagrass: A field experimental study of prédation
TLDR
The use of caging in this experiment separated the predatory impact of fishes from that of the decapods, further clarifying the structure of the food web in this seagrass habitat.
Species Removal Studies. I. Dispersal Strategies of Sympatric Sigmodon hispidus and Reithrodontomys fulvescens Populations
TLDR
The rank-order templated dispersal strategy found during this study has the advantage of introducing a stabilized age structure into newly acquired habitat space and appears to inhibit conspecific immigration.
...
...