Pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Ocular manifestation of a systemic disorder?

@article{SchltzerSchrehardt1992PseudoexfoliationSO,
  title={Pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Ocular manifestation of a systemic disorder?},
  author={Ursula Schl{\"o}tzer-Schrehardt and M R Koca and Gottfried O. H. Naumann and Hildegard Volkholz},
  journal={Archives of ophthalmology},
  year={1992},
  volume={110 12},
  pages={
          1752-6
        }
}
The pseudoexfoliation syndrome has recently been suggested to represent the local manifestation of a more widespread disorder. In this study, a case of classic bilateral pseudoexfoliation syndrome with systemic distribution of pseudoexfoliation material involving a variety of organ systems is described. Using transmission electron microscopy, typical pseudoexfoliation fibers were identified in autopsy tissue specimens of skin, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, and cerebral meninges in addition to… 
Unilateral or asymmetric pseudoexfoliation syndrome? An ultrastructural study.
TLDR
Subclinical alterations of contralateral eyes in clinically so-called unilateral Pex syndrome support the concept that PEX syndrome is a generalized basically bilateral disorder with a clinically marked asymmetric manifestation.
Systemic manifestations of the pseudoexfoliation
TLDR
PxS is an age related systemic disorder with overproduction and accumulation of the pseudoexfoliation material in visceral organs and in the eye and the main risk for systemic manifestation is PEX presence.
Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.
TLDR
Common features in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and PEX, like oxidative stress and inflammation and a possible higher frequency of abdominal aorta aneurysm in PEX patients, could imply that these grey-white deposits and cardiovascular disorders are related or reflect different manifestations of the same process.
Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in an aphakic eye
TLDR
This case focuses on a patient who had pseudoexfoliation syndrome in a phakic eyes and subsequently developed the condition, four years later, in the fellow aphakic eye, demonstrating that the lens is not necessarily the primary site of the disease.
Histopathology of Exfoliation Syndrome.
TLDR
Both the frequent occurrence of clinically unilateral, histopathologically highly asymmetric exfoliation deposits, and the relationship between the early iris vasculopathy that not infrequently may be observed Histopathologically for years before classic widespread exfoliated deposits appear along the anterior and posterior chambers remain to be resolved.
Mechanisms of Glaucoma Development in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome
Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is a common, age-related, clinically relevant, but still underestimated disorder, which is characterized by the multifocal production and progressive accumulation of
Ocular and systemic pseudoexfoliation syndrome.
Systemic Diseases Associated With Exfoliation Syndrome
TLDR
Interestingly, prospective, retrospective, and a variety of other investigations have failed to find consistent or conclusive evidence to suggest an increase in all-cause morbidity or mortality among XFS patients.
Ocular and systemic manifestations of exfoliation syndrome.
TLDR
The discovery in 2007 of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the LOXL1 (lysyl oxidase-like 1) gene are expected to make a major impact not only in understanding exfoliation syndrome, but in leading to new avenues of therapy.
[PEX syndrome. Clinical diagnosis and systemic manifestations].
TLDR
In view of the high risk of glaucoma development and potential complications during cataract surgery, an accurate and early diagnosis of PEX syndrome is of considerable clinical relevance and a reliable diagnosis requires pupillary dilation.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 15 REFERENCES
Occurrence of pseudoexfoliative material in parabulbar structures in pseudoexfoliation syndrome
TLDR
It is demonstrated that pseudoexfoliation syndrome is not a purely intraocular disorder but represents a more widespread disease and also ultrastructurally identical material in hitherto not described extraocular locations such as extraocular rectus and oblique muscles, vortex veins and the optic nerve sheaths.
Preclinical diagnosis of pseudoexfoliation syndrome.
TLDR
In eight PXS suspect eyes biopsy specimens demonstrated PXM, suggesting that PxS is more prevalent and possibly responsible for a greater proportion of glaucoma than previously suspected.
Pseudoexfoliative material contains an elastic microfibrillar-associated glycoprotein.
TLDR
The hypothesis that PSX material derives from abnormal polymerization of glycoprotein associated with the zonular-elastic microfibrillar system is supported.
LIGHT MICROSCOPY OF THE EXFOLIATION SYNDROME
TLDR
Findings suggest that the exfoliation material arises from the epithelium of the lens, iris and ciliary body, possibly the result of an underlying metabolic disorder.
ON THE OCCURRENCE OF PSEUDO‐EXFOLIATION MATERIAL IN EXTRABULBAR TISSUE FROM PATIENTS WITH PSEUDO‐EXFOLIATION SYNDROME OF THE EYE
TLDR
It is concluded that the pseudo-exfoliation material in the mucous membrane of the eyelids is obviously not transported into this region from the intraocular space, and hence the occurrence of such material in this location indicates that pseudo‐exfolation material is synthesized both in ocular and in extrabulbar tissue in patients with pseudo‐ exfoliation syndrome of the eye.
Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components in pseudoexfoliation material of the lens capsule.
TLDR
The additional presence of elastin epitopes indicates that the PSX material is a multicomponent expression of a disordered extracellular matrix synthesis including the incorporation of the principal noncollagenous basement membrane components.
Alteration of microfibrils in the conjunctiva of patients with exfoliation syndrome.
We electron-microscopically studied 15 specimens of upper limbal conjunctiva obtained from 14 patients with exfoliation syndrome and clinical evidence of glaucoma. Of 15 specimens, four (three
The conjunctiva in senile lens exfoliation.
TLDR
Conjunctival biopsy specimens from both eyes of a series of seven patients with evidence of unilateral senile exfoliation of the lens were examined by electron microscopy, and evidence suggests that the conjunctiva is an independent source of exfolation that precedes the development ofExfoliation in the lens.
...
...