Proximate Factors in the Mobilization of Anti‐EU Groups in France and the UK: The European Union as First‐Order Politics

  title={Proximate Factors in the Mobilization of Anti‐EU Groups in France and the UK: The European Union as First‐Order Politics},
  author={Simon McDougall Usherwood},
  journal={Journal of European Integration},
  pages={21 - 3}
  • S. Usherwood
  • Published 5 February 2007
  • Sociology
  • Journal of European Integration
Abstract Events relating to the European Union are typically conceived of as being a ‘second‐order’ phenomenon in domestic politics; ‘European’ referenda, elections, etc. are first and foremost a function of domestic/national issues. However, in the case of anti‐EU groups it is apparent that they are formed primarily as a result of European events. This paper provides a comprehensive taxonomy of proximate factors in such groups’ mobilization, using the otherwise contrasting examples of France… 
The Shifting Focus of Opposition to the European Union
  • S. Usherwood
  • Political Science
    Journal of Contemporary European Research
  • 2013
Using France and the UK as case studies, this paper discusses how the focus of groups opposed to European integration has changed over time. Such groups often claim to have a generalised or
The Dilemma of Pro-European Parties in the UK: The Case of Labour and the Liberal Democrats Since 2010
Much academic research has been devoted to British Euroscepticism especially since the Maastricht ratification saga and, in the last few years, the rise of UKIP (Baker et al. 1994, 2002; Forster
Non-party organisations and campaigns on European integration in Britain, 1945-1986: political and public activism
This thesis is about non-party and non-governmental organisations campaigning for and against European integration in Britain between 1945 and 1986. These groups have been largely overlooked by
Euroscepticism at the Supranational Level: The Case of the ‘Untidy Right’ in the European Parliament*
For the last 20 years, Euroscepticism has become a stable component of European politics and has attracted much attention. European elections have provided Eurosceptic parties with an opportunity to
Euroscepticism as a Persistent Phenomenon
In the two decades since the emergence of the European Union at Maastricht there has been a concerted attempt to build a European political space, typified by the debates on constitutionalization and
Introduction: Interpreting British European Policy
Britain has had particular problems reconciling itself to the idea of being a ‘European’ actor and a wholehearted member of the EEC/EU since 1973. Now, potentially, the ‘awkward partner’ is edging
Euroscepticism in the European Parliament
The development of anti-EU sentiment is one of the most important features of the integration process over the last two decades. The ongoing economic, political and migration crisis has provided
Britain's Nationalist Moment: The Claims-Making of the SNP and UKIP
Britain is having a nationalist moment. The rise of the Scottish National Party and the UK Independence Party marks a major shift in the dynamics of British party competition and of the
Tracing a Political Cleavage: The Wolf Issue in Sweden
Abstract In 2009, Sweden allowed licensed wolf (canis lupus) hunting for the first time in 45 years. After record number of media attention and threat of legal action from the EU, the licenced hunt
The Brexit: A Massive Setback for European Union and a Lesson for African Integration
The Brexit is unprecedented in the history of European Union (EU) and unparalleled in the annals of European integration. The seemingly unexpected outcome of the Brexit referendum has instant,


The politics of opposition and European integration in Scandinavia: Is Euro‐scepticism a government‐opposition dynamic?
Scandinavian party competition has incorporated divisions over European integration to a greater degree than most West European party systems, but with considerable variation in Norway, Sweden and
Governance without Opposition: The Case of the European Union
IT IS NOT EASY TO CHARACTERIZE THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU) AS A political system. The main comprehensive approaches have at least partly failed, and we have to admit that the EU is neither completely
The composition of the directly elected European Parliament does not precisely reflect the 'real' balance of political forces in the European Community. As long as the national political systems
A touchstone of dissent: Euroscepticism in contemporary Western European party systems
With the recent acceleration of the integration process of the European Union there has been a rise in political parties expressing either scepticism or outright criticism of the nature of the
Euroscepticism in France and changing state‐society relations
This article seeks to explain the marked downturn in French public support for the European Union in the early 1990s. Although public support has increased since 1997, voting for Eurosceptic parties
How Europe Matters. Different Mechanisms of Europeanization
While much has been written about the European Union (EU), most of the scholarly work is concerned with the developments at the European level. It is only recently, that we observe increasing
Contemporary Euroscepticism in the party systems of the European Union candidate states of Central and Eastern Europe
This article examines party-based Euroscepticism in the candidate states of Central and Eastern Europe. In an attempt to develop comparative lessons from the different cases, it presents research
Referendum Outcomes and Trust in Government: Public Support for Europe in the Wake of Maastricht
The referenda conducted in France and Denmark in 1992 to ratify the Maastricht Treaty are often seen as giving evidence of ‘true’ attitudes towards Europe. In this paper we dispute this assumption,
Opportunity Structures for Citizens' Participation: The Case of the European Union
This paper offers an analytical framework in order to capture the various channels for the involvement of citizens in democratic systems. It introduces the notion of 'opportunity structures for
The Two Sides of Euroscepticism
This article aims to make a three-fold contribution to the study of Euroscepticism in the wider Europe. First, it presents a two-dimensional conceptualization of party positions on European