Provider Experiences With the Identification, Management, and Treatment of Co-occurring Chronic Noncancer Pain and Substance Use in the Safety Net.

BACKGROUND In the United States and internationally, providers have adopted guidelines on the management of prescription opioids for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). For "high-risk" patients with co-occurring CNCP and a history of substance use, guidelines advise that providers monitor patients using urine toxicology screening tests, develop opioid management… (More)