Provenancing Central African copper croisettes: A first chemical and lead isotope characterisation of currencies in Central and Southern Africa

  title={Provenancing Central African copper croisettes: A first chemical and lead isotope characterisation of currencies in Central and Southern Africa},
  author={F. Rademakers and Nicolas Nikis and T. Putter and P. Degryse},
  journal={Journal of Archaeological Science},
Abstract The Copperbelt is one of the richest copper deposits in the world and has been an important primary metal source for Central African cultures for over a millennium. The technology underlying this exploitation and the trade networks through which copper was exchanged, however, have not yet received much attention in archaeological research. This paper presents the first geochemical dataset for archaeological copper currencies in Central and Southern Africa: croisette ingots. Chemical… Expand
5 Citations

Figures and Tables from this paper

Lead isotopes link copper artefacts from northwestern Botswana to the Copperbelt of Katanga Province, Congo
Abstract Copper was highly valued in sub-Saharan Africa for jewellery and as a store of wealth, but was rarely used for tools or weapons. The Central African Copperbelt is one of the world's largestExpand
Copper Production and Trade in the Niari Basin (Republic of Congo) During the 13th to 19th Centuries ce: Chemical and Lead Isotope Characterization
F. W. RADEMAKERS,† N. NIKIS, T. DE PUTTER and P. DEGRYSE Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200e, Bus 2410, Leuven 3001, Belgium Université libre de Bruxelles, Centre deExpand
Quirimbas islands (Northern Mozambique) and the Swahili gold trade
Abstract In this paper we discuss the results of the archaeometric study (OM, SEM-EDS and PIXE) of a gold bead recovered within an archaeological research program undertaken at Ibo island (QuirimbasExpand
Typologie du mobilier métallique fondée sur les techniques de mise en forme: Application à la tombe 53 du cimetière de Sanga (RDC)
Les typologies d’objets archeologiques metalliques sont rares. Les classifications se cantonnent souvent a l’etude d’une seule categorie d’objets dont la forme evolue de facon marquee dans le tempsExpand


Supergene copper deposits and minerals in the world-class SHSC deposits of the Central African Copperbelt (Katanga, DRC)
Central Africa is a region with an exceptional wealth in mineral deposits. The Copperbelt, a world-class series of copper and cobalt deposits, located in northern Zambia and in the south-eastern partExpand
Copper for the Pharaoh: Identifying multiple metal sources for Ramesses' workshops from bronze and crucible remains
Abstract The origin of copper used in Late Bronze Age (LBA) Egypt is very poorly understood despite its cultural and economic importance attested in archaeological and historical sources. ExtensiveExpand
Sourcing the ore from the Drierivier copper smelting site in central Namibia, using lead isotope fingerprinting
Copper smelting residues from lIgc.l/Ig AD 1650 found at the Drierivier site near Rehoboth in central Namibia have 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios that match a particular deposit at Swartmodder, butExpand
Metal provenancing using isotopes and the Oxford archaeological lead isotope database (OXALID)
This paper reviews the research into the methodology of lead isotope provenance studies carried out at the University of Oxford between 1975 and 2002, at first in the Department of GeologyExpand
Pb-isotope constraints on base-metal mineralisation at Kipushi (Southeastern Zaïre)
Abstract The Kipushi ZnPbCu deposit, located in the northern extension of the Central African Copper Belt in southeastern Zaire, is a discordant ore body at the contact between a breccia body andExpand
Copper, Trade and Polities: Exchange Networks in Southern Central Africa in the 2nd Millennium CE
A rare, scattered resource in Central Africa, copper was produced in the Copperbelt since the 4th–7th centuries CE and traded over large distances from the 9th to the 19th centuries. It was exchangedExpand
A novel approach to lead isotope provenance studies of tin and bronze: applications to South African, Botswanan and Romanian artifacts
Lead isotopic ratios of cassiterite, the dominant ore of tin, evolve after crystallization through decay of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) to lead (Pb), due to the relatively elevated U/Pb ratios ofExpand
Lead Isotopes in West African Copper Alloys
Stable lead isotopes have been measured from copperalloy castings dating from the late first millennium AD to the 19 th Century from Igbo Ukwu, Ife, Jenne, Marandet, Ma'aden Ijâfen, Benin, the LowerExpand
Malachite, an indicator of major Pliocene Cu remobilization in a karstic environment (Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo)
Malachite [Cu3(OH)2(CO3)] is a common mineral in the Central African Copperbelt, where it constitutes a high-grade (~ 57% Cu) copper ore and is exploited industrially and by artisanal miners. TheExpand
Provenance Determination of Archaeological Metal Objects
Archaeometallurgy is one aspect of the widespread interdisciplinary field of science-based archaeology and is itself multifaceted (for a recent review, see Rehren and Pernicka 2008). This articleExpand