Protozoa, protista, protoctista: What's in a name?

  title={Protozoa, protista, protoctista: What's in a name?},
  author={Lynn J. Rothschild},
  journal={Journal of the History of Biology},
  • L. Rothschild
  • Published 1 June 1989
  • Biology
  • Journal of the History of Biology
A rose may still smell like a rose, but Juliet missed the point. The utility of taxonomic nomenclature lies in the wealth of biological information that it conveys. This biological information is based on relatedness, and in the post-Darwinian era "relatedness" is usually meant in the genealogical sense. However, the fascination with nomenclature goes beyond this, for nomenclature is tempered by a curious amalgamation of pragmatism, priority, prejudice, sociology, and occasionally even humor… 
HAECKEL ' S Kingdom Protista and Current Concepts in Systematic
  • Biology
  • 2006
The author briefly presents his own skeletal arrangement of high-level protistan taxa that may be an improvement over those in the recent literature, with emphasis on the idea that the diversity of the protists is too great to be confined to a single kingdom and, thus, that their species require dispersal throughout all of the several kingdoms of the eukaryotic biotic world that are becoming widely recognized today.
The complexities in the classification of protozoa: a challenge to parasitologists
This paper revisits the controversial issues bedevilling classification of the parasitic protozoa as a result of varying interest by different scientists belonging to protozoology and parasitology
Sex, Death, and Evolution in Proto- and Metazoa, 1876–1913
This story illustrates two partially distinct problems in evolutionary biology: first, the question of whether all living things have common features and origins; and second, whether their history and current nature can be described by identical mechanisms.
The other eukaryotes in light of evolutionary protistology
It is argued that an evolutionary understanding of protists is crucial for understanding eukaryotes in general, and evolutionary protistology shows how the emphasis on understanding evolutionary phenomena through a phylogeny-based comparative approach constrains and underpins any more abstract account of why certain organismal features evolved in the early history of eukARYotes.
Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista and Protoctista.
  • J. M. Scamardella
  • Biology
    International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
  • 1999
In the wake of Darwin's evolutionary ideas, mid-nineteenth century naturalists realized the shortcomings of the long established two-kingdom system of organismal classification and introduced concepts of additional kingdoms (Protozoa, Protista, Protoctista, etc.) to accommodate the nature of these organisms as not true plants or animals.
Ernst Haeckel and the Theory of the Cell State: Remarks on the History of a Bio-Political Metaphor
Ernst Haeckel’s special contribution was a pioneering combination of cell theory with evolution theory, including an explanation of the origin of multicellular organisms from colonies of single-cell protists that remains very popular with biologists today.
Biodiversity and Biocomplexity of the Protists and an Overview of Their Significant Roles in Maintenance of Our Biosphere
The present review article reminds readers that far from complete knowledge of protistan taxonomic and phylogenetic interrelationships, as well as of their ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular and evolutionary biology, hinders rapid progress in better understanding of their multiple roles in sustaining today's biosphere.
Why the World Needs Protists!1
Literature references are given to researches—involving diverse species of protists—that support the author's firm conviction that the biological world of today absolutely requires the presence of numerous of these generally small and unicelled organisms if it is to survive.
The collapse of the two-kingdom system, the rise of protistology and the founding of the International Society for Evolutionary Protistology (ISEP).
  • F. Taylor
  • Biology
    International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology
  • 2003
This paper provides a brief summary of the rise and acceptance of protistology as a modern, realistic approach to the evolutionary relationships and classification of unicellular eukaryotic organisms
Protists are microbes too: a perspective
Several possible explanations are explored for why single-celled, eukaryotic microbes (the protists) have remained largely overlooked in the present ‘era of the microbe’.


New concepts of kingdoms of organisms
My purpose in this article is to discuss the merits of two classifications which depart from the traditional two kingdoms, the systems of Copeland (1-3) and Whittaker (4, 5).
  • L. Margulis
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1971
Whittaker's (1969) new system of classification into five kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Animalia, Plantae and Fungi) has made a fundamental contribution to the clarification of relationships among
The Kingdoms of Organisms
The recognition of certain groups of living creatures as kingdoms in addition to the two which are conventionally recognized is proposed.
Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells
This chapter will argue that modern biologists, in spite of social pressures and historical precedents, need to replace the traditional two-kingdom animal-plant distinction with a multikingdom classification of living organisms.
Antony Van Leeuwenhoek and His 'Little Animals'
This old Hollander', writes Dobell (in a previous article), 'was, in truth, one of the most original men who ever lived'.
Reconciliation of evolution and nomenclature among the higher taxa of protists
A system which circumvents problems by recognizing the largest monophyletic groups possible, and creating a nomenclature for these by appending the suffix ‘protista’ onto an already recognizable prefix: for example, euglenoprotista, cilioprotistas, chytridioprotista.
On the Broad Classification of Organisms
A system of broad classification which recognized a plant kingdom of four divisions and an animal kingdom of ten to fifteen phyla was for many years stable and standardized. Significant changes have
Archetypes and Ancestors-Palaeontology in Victorian London 1850-1875.
Adrian Desmond set out to determine how much light might be shed on the mid-Victorian controversies over fossil reconstruction by an investigation of the ideological commitments and political programs of London paleontologists, and the resulting book is thoroughly fascinating.
Origin of the eukaryotic nucleus determined by rate-invariant analysis of rRNA sequences
Using evolutionary parsimony, a newly developed rate-invariant treeing algorithm, the eukaryotic ribosomal rRNA genes are shown to have evolved from the eocytes, a group of extremely thermophilic, sulphur-metabolizing, anucleate cells that probably lacked nuclei, metabolized sulphur and lived at near-boiling temperatures.