Protonephridia in the larvae of the paleonemertean species Carinoma mutabilis (Carinomidae, Nemertea) and Cephalothrix (Procephalothrix) filiformis (Cephalothricidae, Nemertea)

@article{Bartolomaeus2013ProtonephridiaIT,
  title={Protonephridia in the larvae of the paleonemertean species Carinoma mutabilis (Carinomidae, Nemertea) and Cephalothrix (Procephalothrix) filiformis (Cephalothricidae, Nemertea)},
  author={Thomas Bartolomaeus and Svetlana A. Maslakova and J{\"o}rn von D{\"o}hren},
  journal={Zoomorphology},
  year={2013},
  volume={133},
  pages={43-57}
}
During spiralian development, the first pair of nephridia forms anterior to the mouth. Each organ consists of a few cells, which is characteristic for spiralian larvae. In nemerteans, one of the unambiguously spiralian taxa, so far protonephridia, has been reported only in advanced pilidium larvae, where they likely persist as juvenile and adult nephridia. These organs have not been recorded in larvae of the basally branching nemertean taxa. In search for these organs, we examined the… CONTINUE READING
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