Proton Current Flow in Mitochondrial Systems

  title={Proton Current Flow in Mitochondrial Systems},
  author={Peter Mitchell},
FOLLOWING recent publications in Nature on hydrogen ion concentrations and flows in mitochondria1–5, Baum6 (see preceding communication) has aptly drawn attention to the fact that the chemiosmotic hypothesis does not require a significant pH. difference across the mitochondrial membrane system7. In the original outline of the hypothesis8 it was shown that the major component of the protonmotive force (p.m.f.) should be a membrane potential. Admitting therefore that the experimental facts may be… 
Accumulating evidence shows that mitochondrial swelling induced by apoptotic stimuli can also occur independently of permeability transition pore activation, and a novel mechanism for osmotic swelling of mitochondria has been described.
A role for mitochondrial aquaporins in cellular life-and-death decisions?
Mitochondria dominate the process of life-and-death decisions of the cell. Continuous generation of ATP is essential for cell sustenance, but, on the other hand, mitochondria play a central role in
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in excitable cells: modulators of mitochondrial and cell function.
The role played by ROS and their scavenging systems in modulation of cell function and cell death has grown exponentially over the past few years, but knowledge is still limited in how to apply this knowledge to develop its full therapeutic potential.
The Human OXPHOS System
In this review the composition, structure and function of the complexes of the mammalian mitochondrial electron transport chain and the ATP synthase are highlighted in the context of the Chemiosmotic
[Mitochondrial toxicity of drugs].
  • U. Gröber
  • Biology
    Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten
  • 2012
This review focuses on the mitochondrial toxicity of drugs in general and explains the practical relevance of these adverse drug events according to specific drugs (metformin, statins, acetaminophen, valproic acid) and the significance of mitotropic micronutrients in the prevention and management of drug-induced mitochondrial injury is discussed.
Membrane Transport
  • W. Stillwell
  • Biology
    An Introduction to Biological Membranes
  • 2013
Thévenod life-and-death decisions ? A role for mitochondrial aquaporins in cellular
[PDF] [Full Text] [Abstract] , January 1, 2007; 292 (1): C157-C163. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol A. Kaasik, D. Safiulina, A. Zharkovsky and V. Veksler Regulation of mitochondrial matrix volume [PDF]
What history tells us XI. The complex history of the chemiosmotic theory
The chemiosmotic hypothesis appears as a supra-molecular vision of cell energetics, opposed to the more reductionist approach of most biochemists, and has a more favourable echo among biologists today.


Evidence discriminating between the Chemical and the Chemiosmotic Mechanisms of Electron Transport Phosphorylation
More crucial experimental tests of the alternative hypotheses are sought of the proton pump driven by hydrolysis of X ∼ I, either directly, or via the ‘W complex’ suggested by Lardy, Connelly and Johnson.
Intramitochondrial pH and Intra-extramitochondrial pH Gradient of Beef Heart Mitochondria in Various Functional States
5,5-DIMETHYL 2,4-oxazolidinedione (DMO), a weak inert acid, was employed to calculate the muscle intracellular pH based on its distribution between the muscle tissue and plasma and it was used to measure the intramitochondrial pH and intra-extramit mitochondria pH gradient of beef heart mitochondria.
Is there Proton Noise in Mitochondrial Membranes leading to Chance Fluctuations in pH?
Questions about whether noise might prevent accurate measurements of pH in the intramitochondrial space, or indeed in any small space, such as the active site of an enzyme, must not be overlooked.
Mitochondria and pH
THE concept of intracellular pH depends on the assumption that the cell is either not divided into compartments, or that the volumes of the compartments are large enough to contain a statistically
Regulation of metabolic processes in mitochondria
This volume presents the complete proceedings of a conference held in April 1965, attended by some 60 continental experts on the mitochondrion, and reveals that RNA synthesis increases immediately upon shifting to an enriched medium, while there is a lag period in the increase of protein and DNA synthesis.
Energetics of Coupled Events involving Small Compartments
THE recent correspondence about intramitochondrial1–3 pH and intra-extramitochondrial pH. gradients4 does not touch on a related (and possibly naive) problem arising out of the extreme smallness of
Coupling of Phosphorylation to Electron and Hydrogen Transfer by a Chemi-Osmotic type of Mechanism
Coupling of Phosphorylation to Electron and Hydrogen Transfer by a Chemi-Osmotic type of Mechanism
Intramitochondrial pH: a Statistical Question of Hydrogen Ion Concentration in a Small Element of Space-time
McCABE1 has argued, on statistical grounds, that the pH within mitochondria is ill-defined. In the process he asserts that water at pH 7 contains about 30 hydrogen ions per µ3, but, in fact, the