Prothymosin α gene in humans: organization of its promoter region and localization to chromosome 2

  title={Prothymosin $\alpha$ gene in humans: organization of its promoter region and localization to chromosome 2},
  author={Paul Szabo and Chinnakkanu Panneerselvam and Michael Clinton and Maria Frangou-Lazaridis and D. Weksler and Emerson Whittington and Michael J. Macera and Karl Heinz Grzeschik and Annamalai Selvakumar and Bernard L. Horecker},
  journal={Human Genetics},
A genomic clone encoding prothymosin α (gene symbol: PTMA), a nuclear-targeted protein associated with cell proliferation, was isolated and the 5′-regulatory region subcloned and sequenced. Because of previously reported discrepancies between several cDNA clones and a genomic clone for prothymosin α, we determined the sequence of the first exon and of a 1.7-kb region 5′ to the first exon. The sequence of the genomic clone reported here corresponds to the published cDNA sequences, suggesting… Expand
Prothymosin alpha expression in the vertebrate testis: a comparative review
Summary Prothymosin alpha (PTMA) is a highly acidic, intrinsically disordered protein that was first extracted from rat thymus and characterized as an immunogenic factor but soon detected in aExpand
Regulation of prothymosin α by estrogen receptor α: molecular mechanisms and relevance in estrogen-mediated breast cell growth
It is reported that Estradiol (E2) upregulates PTα mRNA and protein expression and further studies indicate that ERα regulates PTα gene transcriptional activity, underscore the importance of PTα in estrogen-induced breast cell proliferation. Expand
Prothymosin Alpha and Immune Responses
The thymus gland produces soluble molecules, which mediate significant immune functions. The first biologically active thymic extract was thymosin fraction V, the fractionation of which led to theExpand
Chapter Eight Prothymosin Alpha and Immune Responses Are We Close to Potential Clinical Applications?
A historical overview on the discovery and isolation of thymosins with emphasis on proTα and data on some immune-related new activities of the polypeptide and smaller immunostimulatory peptides thereof is presented. Expand
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It is demonstrated, through a microarray approach, that HIV-1 Tat is able to regulate many cellular genes that are involved in cell signaling, translation and ultimately control the host proliferative and differentiation signals. Expand


Isolation and partial sequencing of the human prothymosin alpha gene family. Evidence against export of the gene products.
The localization of prothymosin alpha mRNAs on free polysomes, together with the partial nucleotide sequences of the genes, strongly suggest an intracellular function for prothyon alpha and the possibility must be raised that the protein and its peptide derivatives act as xenobiotics when introduced into assays of immune function. Expand
Molecular cloning of cDNA for human prothymosin alpha.
A cDNA library was constructed from human spleen mRNA and screened for clones containing cDNAs coding for prothymosin alpha, and the deduced amino acid sequence confirms and completes the partial sequence of human prothysin alpha determined by protein sequencing methods. Expand
The gene for the alpha polypeptide of pyruvate dehydrogenase is X-linked in humans.
The chromosomal location of the gene for the alpha polypeptide of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (alpha E1) was determined by using a cloned cDNA for alpha E1 using a 1-kb cDNA isolated from a human liver lambda gt11 expression library with specific antibodies. Expand
Nuclear targeting of prothymosin alpha.
The basic cluster of amino acids at the carboxyl terminus of prothymosin alpha, TKKQKT, has been identified as part of the nuclear targeting signal, whereas the basic clusterof amino acids situated within the thymos in alpha 1 sequence at the amino terminus failed to effect nuclear transport. Expand
The human prothymosin alpha gene is polymorphic and induced upon growth stimulation: evidence using a cloned cDNA.
Examination of mouse and human tissues revealed the presence of prothymosin alpha mRNA in kidney, liver, spleen, normal lymphocytes (predominantly T cells), human T-cell leukemia virus-infected T cells, and myeloma cells (B-cell lineage). Expand
Evidence for nuclear targeting of prothymosin and parathymosin synthesized in situ.
The results provide direct evidence, with proteins synthesized in situ, for the presence of nuclear localization signals in both prothymosin and parathymos in. Expand
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The results suggest that the ribonucleoprotein containing the down-regulated RNA species may be a negative transcriptional factor and that activation of the erythropoietin gene by cobalt salts may involve, in part, decreased binding of this factor, thus allowing transcription to proceed. Expand
Human prothymosin α: Amino acid sequence and immunologic properties
Human prothymosin is significantly less active than rat prothcyosin in protecting mice against infection with Candida albicans and in stimulating release in vivo of migration inhibitory factor, indicating species specificity in boilogical properties. Expand
Cloning of cDNA encoding steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase (P450c11).
Combined cDNA and RNA sequence data demonstrated a continuous open reading frame of 1509 bases, useful in developing reagents for heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis of 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency, the second most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Expand
The expression of prothymosin alpha gene in T lymphocytes and leukemic lymphoid cells is tied to lymphocyte proliferation.
Data show that ProT alpha mRNA levels change with the maturation stage of T-cells, and the amount of prothymosin alpha transcript is increased in lymphocytes from human patients with leukemias, indicating a role for ProTalpha linked to lymphocyte proliferation. Expand