Proteus mirabilis is naturally resistant to polymyxin B (PB). To investigate the underlying mechanisms, Tn5 mutagenesis was performed, and a mutant exhibiting increased PB susceptibility was isolated. The mutant was found to have Tn5 inserted into the PpmrI (Proteus pmrI) gene, a gene which may encode a UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase. In other bacteria, pmrI belongs to the seven-gene pmrF operon, which is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification. While the PpmrI knockout mutant had a wild-type LPS profile and produced amounts of LPS similar to those produced by the wild type, LPS of the knockout mutant had higher PB-binding activity than that of the wild type. PB could induce alterations of LPS in the wild type but not in the PpmrI knockout mutant. Moreover, the PpmrI knockout mutant exhibited decreased abilities in biofilm formation and urothelial cell invasion. Complementation of the PpmrI mutant with the full-length PpmrI gene led to restoration of the wild-type phenotypic traits. Previously we identified RppA, a response regulator of the bacterial two-component system, as a regulator of PB susceptibility and virulence factor expression in P. mirabilis. Here we showed that RppA could mediate the induction of PpmrI expression by PB. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay further demonstrated that RppA could bind directly to the putative PpmrI promoter. Together, these results provide a new insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying PB resistance and virulence expression in P. mirabilis.