Proteorhodopsin in the ubiquitous marine bacterium SAR11

@article{Giovannoni2005ProteorhodopsinIT,
  title={Proteorhodopsin in the ubiquitous marine bacterium SAR11},
  author={S. Giovannoni and L. Bibbs and Jang-Cheon Cho and M. Stapels and R. Desiderio and K. Vergin and M. Rapp{\'e} and S. Laney and L. Wilhelm and H. J. Tripp and E. Mathur and D. Barofsky},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2005},
  volume={438},
  pages={82-85}
}
Proteorhodopsins are light-dependent proton pumps that are predicted to have an important role in the ecology of the oceans by supplying energy for microbial metabolism. Proteorhodopsin genes were first discovered through the cloning and sequencing of large genomic DNA fragments from seawater. They were later shown to be widely distributed, phylogenetically diverse, and active in the oceans. Proteorhodopsin genes have not been found in cultured bacteria, and on the basis of environmental… Expand
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  • Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering
  • 2010
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Comparisons of PR-bearing genomic fragments recovered directly from planktonic bacteria inhabiting the California coast, the central Pacific Ocean, and waters offshore the Antarctica Peninsula indicate that PR genes are distributed among a variety of divergent marine bacterial taxa, including both α- and γ-proteobacteria. Expand
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TLDR
It is reported that photoactive proteorhodopsin is present in oceanic surface waters and evidence is provided of an extensive family of globally distributed proteorodopsin variants that seem to be spectrally tuned to different habitats—absorbing light at different wavelengths in accordance with light available in the environment. Expand
Cultivation of the ubiquitous SAR11 marine bacterioplankton clade
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The isolation of representatives of the SAR11 clade is reported, which indicates that diverse uncultivated microbial taxa dominate most natural ecosystems, which has prompted widespread efforts to elucidate the geochemical activities of these organisms without the benefit of cultures for study. Expand
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The results demonstrate that archaeal-like rhodopsins are broadly distributed among different taxa, including members of the domain Bacteria, and indicate that a previously unsuspected mode of bacterially mediated light-driven energy generation may commonly occur in oceanic surface waters worldwide. Expand
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Proteorhodopsins (PRs), bacterial photoactive proton pumps, were originally detected in the uncultured marine gamma-proteobacterial SAR86 group. PRs are now known to occur in both the gamma and alphaExpand
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TLDR
Proteorhodopsins, ubiquitous retinylidene photoactive proton pumps, were recently found in the widespread uncultured SAR86 bacterial group in oceanic surface waters, and new degenerate sets of proteOrhodopsin primers were designed based on a genomic proteorhodopin gene sequence originating from an Antarctic fosmid library, suggesting that this class of proteins has undergone substantial evolution. Expand
SAR11 clade dominates ocean surface bacterioplankton communities
TLDR
Quantitative measurements of the cellular abundance of the SAR11 clade in northwestern Sargasso Sea waters to 3,000 m and in Oregon coastal surface waters support the conclusion that this microbial group is among the most successful organisms on Earth. Expand
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TLDR
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Spectroscopic and Photochemical Characterization of a Deep Ocean Proteorhodopsin*
TLDR
Calculations of photon fluence rates at different ocean depths show that the difference in photocycle rates between GPR and BPR as well as their different absorption maxima may be explained as an adaptation to the different light intensities available in their respective marine environments. Expand
Diversification and spectral tuning in marine proteorhodopsins
TLDR
It is demonstrated that a single amino acid residue at position 105 that functions as a spectral tuning switch and accounts for most of the spectral difference between the two pigment families is the major determinant of proteorhodopsin wavelength regulation in natural marine environments. Expand
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