Platinum-based chemotherapy, such as cisplatin, is the primary treatment for human ovarian cancer. However, overcoming drug resistance has become an important issue in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we performed 2-DE and ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS analysis to identify differential proteins expression between cisplatin-sensitive (A2780S) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780-CP) ovarian cancer cell lines. Of the 14 spots identified as differentially expressed (±over twofold, P < 0.05) between the two cell lines, ten spots (corresponding to ten unique proteins) were positively identified by ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS analysis. These proteins include capsid glycoprotein, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, putative RNA-binding protein 3, Ran-specific GTPase-activating protein, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1, stathmin, ATPSH protein, chromobox protein homolog3 and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. The proteins identified in this study would be useful in revealing the mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance and also provide some clues for further research.