In flowering plants, anther development plays crucial role in sexual reproduction. Within the anther, microspore mother cells meiosis produces microspores, which further develop into pollen grains that play decisive role in plant reproduction. Previous studies on anther biology mainly focused on single gene functions relying on genetic and molecular methods. Recently, anther development has been expanded from multiple OMICS approaches like transcriptomics, proteomics/phosphoproteomics, and metabolomics. The development of proteomics techniques allowing increased proteome coverage and quantitative measurements of proteins which can characterize proteomes and their modulation during normal development, biotic and abiotic stresses in anther development. In this review, we summarize the achievements of proteomics and phosphoproteomics with anther and pollen organs from model plant and crop species (i.e. Arabidopsis, rice, tobacco). The increased proteomic information facilitated translation of information from the models to crops and thus aid in agricultural improvement.