Neurons and astrocytes are predominant cell types in brain and have distinguished morphological and functional features. Although several proteomics studies were carried out on the brain, work on individual brain cells is limited. Generating individual proteomes of neurons and astrocytes, however, is mandatory to assign protein expression to cell types rather than to tissues. We aimed to provide maps of rat primary neurons and astrocytes using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel digestion, followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. 428 protein spots corresponding to 226 individual proteins in neurons and 406 protein spots representing 228 proteins in astrocytes were unambiguously identified. Proteome data include proteins from several cascades differentially expressed in neurons and astrocytes, and specific expressional patterns of antioxidant, signaling, chaperone, cytoskeleton, nucleic acid binding, proteasomal, and metabolic proteins are demonstrated. We herein present a reference database of primary rat primary neuron and astrocyte proteomes and provide an analytical tool for these structures. The concomitant expressional patterns of several protein classes are given and potential neuronal and astrocytic marker candidates are presented.