Protein secretion in the absence of ATP: the autotransporter, two-partner secretion and chaperone/usher pathways of Gram-negative bacteria (Review)

@article{Thanassi2005ProteinSI,
  title={Protein secretion in the absence of ATP: the autotransporter, two-partner secretion and chaperone/usher pathways of Gram-negative bacteria (Review)},
  author={David G. Thanassi and Christos Stathopoulos and Aarthi Karkal and Huilin Li},
  journal={Molecular Membrane Biology},
  year={2005},
  volume={22},
  pages={63 - 72}
}
Bacteria secrete a wide variety of proteins, many of which play important roles in virulence. In Gram-negative bacteria, these proteins must cross the cytoplasmic or inner membrane, periplasm, and outer membrane to reach the cell surface. Gram-negative bacteria have evolved multiple pathways to allow protein secretion across their complex envelope. ATP is not available in the periplasm and many of these secretion pathways encode components that harness energy available at the inner membrane to… 

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