Protein phosphatase PP1 negatively regulates the Toll-like receptor- and RIG-I-like receptor-triggered production of type I interferon by inhibiting IRF3 phosphorylation at serines 396 and 385 in macrophage.

Abstract

The production of type I interferon must be tightly regulated, and the aberrant production of this protein is harmful or even fatal to the host. The transcription factor IRF3 phosphorylation is a central regulator of type I interferon meditated antiviral response. Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) has been reported to be important in many cell functions, including development, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. However, the roles of PP1 in Toll-like receptor (TLR)- or retinoic acid-inducible gene I like receptor (RLR)-triggered IRF-3 activation remain unclear. Here, we show that the activity of PP1 is downregulated in macrophages upon stimulation with TLR or RLR ligands, including lipopolysaccharide, and poly(I:C), or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), respectively. The overexpression of PP1 selectively inhibits TLR- and VSV-induced interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation but has no substantial effect on TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1),ΚB kinase ε (IKKε) activation. Conversely, RNA interference of PP1 significantly promotes IRF3 activation. Consistently, The overexpression of PP1 inhibits TLR- and VSV-triggered IFN-β production while PP1 knockdown significantly increases the production of IFN-β in macrophages. We further demonstrate that PP1 directly interacts with IRF3 and dephosphorylates IRF3 at Ser385 and Ser396, resulting in the suppression of TLR- and RLR-triggered IFN-β production. Thus, PP1 functions as a negative feedback regulator of TLR- and RLR-triggered antiviral immune responses by acting as an IRF3 phosphatase.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.09.007

Cite this paper

@article{Gu2014ProteinPP, title={Protein phosphatase PP1 negatively regulates the Toll-like receptor- and RIG-I-like receptor-triggered production of type I interferon by inhibiting IRF3 phosphorylation at serines 396 and 385 in macrophage.}, author={Meidi Gu and Ting Zhang and Wenlong Lin and Zhiyong Liu and Rongrong Lai and Dajing Xia and He Huang and Xiaojian Wang}, journal={Cellular signalling}, year={2014}, volume={26 12}, pages={2930-9} }