Fibril-mediated oligomerization of pilin-derived protein nanotubes
This report describes the synthesis and enzyme activities of multilayered protein nanotubes with an α-glucosidase (αGluD) interior surface. The nanotubes were prepared by using an alternating layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of human serum albumin (HSA) and oppositely charged poly-L-arginine (PLA) into a track-etched polycarbonate (PC) membrane (pore size=400 nm) followed by addition of αGluD as the last layer of the wall. Subsequent dissolution of the PC template yielded (PLA/HSA)(2)PLA/αGluD nanotubes. SEM measurements revealed the formation of uniform hollow cylinders with (413±17) nm outer diameter and (52±3) nm wall thickness. In aqueous media, the nanotubes captured a fluorogenic glucopyranoside, 4-methyl-umbelliferyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (MUGlc), into their one-dimensional pore space and hydrolyzed the substrate efficiently to form α-D-glucose. We determined the enzyme parameters (Michaelis constant, K(M), and catalytic constant, k(cat), values) of the protein nanotubes. The several-micrometers-long cylinders were of sufficient length to be spun down by centrifugation at 4000 g, so the product could therefore be easily separated. Similar biocatalysts were prepared by complexation of biotinylated-αGluD into HSA-based nanotubes bearing a single avidin layer as an internal surface. The obtained hybrid nanotubes also exhibited the same enzyme activity for the MUGlc hydrolysis.