If one member of a molecular machine cannot realistically arise by chance, neither could a cell which consists of hundreds of integrated biochemical processes. If a cow can’t jump over a building then it can’t jump over the moon. A single gene has no biological use since multiple kinds of proteins, coded on different genes, are needed by all cellular processes. When asked how genes may have arisen simultaneously, evolutionists sometimes invoke the notion of ‘co-evolution’: a copied gene evolved a new sequence and function in the presence of other already existing genes. Since a current biological Function A (Figure 1) depends upon multiple genes, ancestor functions A -1 , A -2, ... presumably existed for variants of each of the genes used in the present function. This poses a dilemma, since multiple other genes for the preceding function become necessary to explain the existence of a single subsequent gene. We thus replace one problem with a more difficult one (Figure 1).3 However, the materialist framework assumes biological complexity arises from simpler states. Thousands of proteins appear to be dedicated to a single cellular function, in particular specialized enzymatic catalysis.4 There is no evidence they or related variants played another function earlier. One could hardly argue all genes or proteins in nature arose from a single master copy in a living organism. Examining sequences of proteins, which can range in length from a few dozen to 30,000 amino acids5 makes clear there are many families of sequentially unrelated proteins. Let us neglect here the question of abiogenesis and assume some simple life form existed able to replicate successfully enough to not self-destruct. A theistic evolutionist might propose God used an evolutionary scheme without active guidance. Can natural genetic processes create novel, unrelated proteins over deep time?