Protein delivery into eukaryotic cells by type III secretion machines.


Bacteria that have sustained long-standing close associations with eukaryotic hosts have evolved specific adaptations to survive and replicate in this environment. Perhaps one of the most remarkable of those adaptations is the type III secretion system (T3SS)--a bacterial organelle that has specifically evolved to deliver bacterial proteins into eukaryotic cells. Although originally identified in a handful of pathogenic bacteria, T3SSs are encoded by a large number of bacterial species that are symbiotic or pathogenic for humans, other animals including insects or nematodes, and plants. The study of these systems is leading to unique insights into not only organelle assembly and protein secretion but also mechanisms of symbiosis and pathogenesis.

4 Figures and Tables

Citations per Year

1,445 Citations

Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has 1,445 citations based on the available data.

See our FAQ for additional information.

Cite this paper

@article{Galn2006ProteinDI, title={Protein delivery into eukaryotic cells by type III secretion machines.}, author={Jorge E. Gal{\'a}n and Hans Wolf-Watz}, journal={Nature}, year={2006}, volume={444 7119}, pages={567-73} }