Antimutagenic evaluation of traditional medicinal plants from South America Peumus boldus and Cryptocarya alba using Drosophila melanogaster.
Experiments were performed to assess in mice the inhibitory effects of the anthocyanidins cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, and pelargonidin on genotoxic damage induced by the anticancer drugs cyclophosphamide, procarbazine, and cisplatin. Each anthocyanidin was administered 30 min before injecting the drug, and genotoxicity was assessed by measuring micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells. In addition, we monitored the effect of anthocyanidins on apoptosis induced by cyclophosphamide and procarbazine. The results showed significant protective effects of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, and pelargonidin against DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide. With delphinidin and malvidin, a biphasic dose-response was observed for protection against cyclophosphamide. Dose-related reduction of genotoxicity was observed with pelargonidin against procarbazine. However with cyanidin, the medium dose of 2 mg/kg showed maximum protection against procarbazine. Cyanidin and pelargonidin significantly reduced the chromosomal damage induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, pre-treatment with these anthocyanidins reduced the level of apoptosis induced by cyclophosphamide and procarbazine. In conclusion, this study shows that anthocyanidins can reduce the efficacy of anticancer drugs for inducing DNA damage and apoptosis.