Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and ischemic disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Chinese propolis and its constituents [chrysin, galangin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)] against tunicamycin-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Both Chinese propolis and chrysin concentration-dependently inhibited such cell death, the tunicamycin-induced activation of caspase-3, and the effects of tunicamycin on mitochondria [release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim)]. Furthermore, Chinese propolis and chrysin each inhibited staurosporine-induced cell death. These findings indicate that the inhibitory effects of Chinese propolis against neuronal cell death induced by ER stress or staurosporine may be exerted primarily by chrysin. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the protective effects may, at least partly, involve inhibitions of caspase-3 activity and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.