Protective association and breeding advantages of choughs nesting in lesser kestrel colonies

@article{Blanco1997ProtectiveAA,
  title={Protective association and breeding advantages of choughs nesting in lesser kestrel colonies},
  author={Guillermo Blanco and Jos{\'e} L. Tella},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={1997},
  volume={54},
  pages={335-342}
}
Some bird species may breed close to aggressive predators to reduce predation risk by more dangerous, generalist predators. We tested this protective nesting association hypothesis by studying solitary choughs, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocoraxbreeding within or outside lesser kestrel, Falco naumannicolonies in northern Spain (1993-1994). We found 27 potential predators of choughs and kestrels and confirmed predation on adults and nests of both species by at least eight common predators. We… 
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