Herbal Supplement in a Buffer for Dry Eye Syndrome Treatment
Inflammatory response is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac fibroblasts play a crucial role in cardiac inflammation and might become a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Kaempferol, a flavonoid commonly existing in many edible fruits, vegetables, and Chinese herbs, is well known to possess anti-inflammatory property and thus has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. To date, the effect of kaempferol on cardiac fibroblasts inflammation is unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus ATP-induced cardiac fibroblasts and explored the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that kaempferol at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 μg/mL significantly suppressed the release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18 and inhibited activation of NF-κB and Akt in LPS plus ATP-induced cardiac fibroblasts. These findings suggest that kaempferol attenuates cardiac fibroblast inflammation through suppression of activation of NF-κB and Akt.