Protection of waterborne pathogens by higher organisms in drinking water: a review.

  title={Protection of waterborne pathogens by higher organisms in drinking water: a review.},
  author={Françoise Bichai and Pierre Payment and Benoit Barbeau},
  journal={Canadian journal of microbiology},
  volume={54 7},
Higher organisms are ubiquitous in surface waters, and some species can proliferate in granular filters of water treatment plants and colonize distribution systems. Meanwhile, some waterborne pathogens are known to maintain viability inside amoebae or nematodes. The well-documented case of Legionella replication within amoebae is only one example of a bacterial pathogen that can be amplified inside the vacuoles of protozoa and then benefit from the protection of a resistant structure that… 

Pathogen Management in Surface Waters: Practical Considerations for Reducing Public Health Risk

The nature of disease caused by these organisms is also widely variable, and in poorly treated drinking water storages and recreational waters (both fresh and marine), other problem organisms include bacteria such as Salmonella spp.

Do free-living amoebae in treated drinking water systems present an emerging health risk?

It is revealed that FLA are consistently detected in treated drinking water systems around the world and present a yet unquantified emerging health risk, however, more research is urgently required before accurate risks assessments can be undertaken to assess the impacts on human health.

Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

How knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to maintain good drinking water microbial quality up to consumer’s tap is discussed.

Water Lice and Other Macroinvertebrates in Drinking Water Pipes: Diversity, Abundance and Health Risk

Activities to ensure and maintain water quality in drinking water networks, including flushing, are presented after standardized hydrant sampling combined with a stainless-steel low pressure–high

Characterising the microbial communities associated with the water distribution system of a broiler farm and their role in Campylobacter infection

The main objectives were to unravel the microbial communities associated with the drinking water system of broiler farms and their dynamics through the rearing cycle; to investigate the aerobic survival of the pathogen in co-culture with Pseudomonas environmental isolates and Acanthamoeba polyphaga; and to study Campylobacter prevalence in chicken farms in Uganda.

Inadmissible Planktons in Potable Water: A Potential Risk for Human Health

Water pollution is a major concern influencing human lives in many ways, not only the nature of potable water, but also the health of those who consume it, and the health-related consequences of the planktons range from cell damage to mortality.

Megacities as Sources for Pathogenic Bacteria in Rivers and Their Fate Downstream

  • W. Abraham
  • Environmental Science
    International journal of microbiology
  • 2011
An overview about the current understanding of the fate and niches of pathogens in rivers, the multitude of microbial community interactions, and the impact of severe flooding, a prerequisite to control pathogens in polluted rivers, is given.

Can E. coli or thermotolerant coliform concentrations predict pathogen presence or prevalence in irrigation waters?

Critical information on microbial composition of actual irrigation waters to support criteria of microbiological quality of irrigation waters appears to be lacking and needs to be collected.

Association of hygienically relevant microorganisms with freshwater plankton

The field study as well as laboratory microcosms indicate that there are associations and accumulations of pathogenic bacteria, with different characteristics and origins, with plankton, and that the VBNC cells resuscitate and regain their virulence.

The fate of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Boliviar waste stabilisation ponds

A knowledge gap exists regarding the fate of Cryptosporidium (oocyst numbers and infectivity) in lagoon systems and the addition of further treatment processes may not be warranted if oocysts are effectively removed and/or inactivated, adding additional costs to recycling.



Survival, and protection against chlorination, of human enteric pathogens in free-living nematodes isolated from water supplies.

It is concluded that nematodes of the Rhabditidae family and of sewage-treatment origin may be potential carriers of human enteric bacteria and viruses and will survive routine chlorination as practiced in the field.

Protozoan Bacterivory and Escherichia coli Survival in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

The GAC water-supplied network contained a functional ecosystem with well-established and structured microbial communities, while the nanofiltered water-Supplied system did not.

Free-living amoebae protecting Legionella in water: the tip of an iceberg?

Naming free-living amoebae the "Trojan horses" of the microbial world is appropriate because they are well adapted to their hostile environmental conditions and are resistant to both desiccation, elevated temperatures and various disinfectants.

Significance of bacteria associated with invertebrates in drinking water distribution networks.

It can be concluded that bacteria associated with invertebrate might under the worst case scenario pose a potential health risk to water users and it is clear that invertebrates in drinking water should be controlled at levels as low as technically and economically feasible.

Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Water: Effect of Grazing by the Freshwater Crustacean Daphnia carinata (Cladocera)

This is the first evidence to suggest that grazing by planktonic organisms can reduce the abundance of C. jejuni in natural waters and offers potential for reducing microbial pathogen densities in drinking water reservoirs and recreational water bodies, thereby reducing the risk of contracting water-borne disease.

Survival of Environmental Mycobacteria in Acanthamoeba polyphaga

The ability of a number of Mycobacterium spp.

A colonization factor links Vibrio cholerae environmental survival and human infection

A single protein required for efficient intestinal colonization that mediates attachment to both zooplankton and human epithelial cells by binding to a sugar present on both surfaces is identified.

Biofilms, thermophilic amoebae and Legionella pneumophila--a quantitative risk assessment for distributed water.

Biofilm detachment and the interaction of Legionella with acanthamoebae were two important ecological factors that significantly increased the risk of legionellosis, and thus should be further considered in the refinement of QMRA models.

Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Waterborne Protozoa

It is suggested that protozoa in broiler drinking water systems can delay the decline of Campylobacter viability and increase Campyloblacter disinfection resistance, thus increasing the potential of Campyobacter to colonize broilers.