Identifying hazards in complex ecological systems. Part 3: Hierarchical Holographic Model for herbicide tolerant oilseed rape.
The interconnectedness of physical large-scale infrastructures, including transportation, banking and finance, telecommunications, and electric power, renders their modeling and thus their joint protection against terrorist acts a complex task. This paper explores the sources of difficulties in modeling such complex systems, and the related needs for research and development. It reviews the need to understand and advance the art and science of complexity and complex systems and emphasizes that to manage the risk associated with natural and willful threats to our physical infrastructures, we must better understand the interand intra-connectedness among the various subsystems. It highlights the efficacy and imperative need of a holistic and a Gestalt-vision philosophy to assess and manage the security and survivability of critical transportation infrastructure systems and also shares successful use of hierarchical holographic modeling as a tested methodology to identify the risks and vulnerability to terrorism of our water-supply infrastructure. Finally, the paper discusses public policy implications and offers a sample of research needs to address the emerging threats to the nation’s infrastructures.